International Development Planning Review

Cyber-civic space in Indonesia: From panopticon to pandemonium?

International Development Planning Review (2002), 24, (4), 383–400.

Abstract

The Indonesian experience shows that the internet can be a double-edged sword in facilitating democratisation. Responding to the debate about whether the internet leads to democratisation, is an Orwellian menace to democracy, or is a facilitator of global capitalist hegemony, this paper shows that these questions cannot be resolved in the virtual world of the internet itself. Rather, they are played out locally through struggles revolving around the creation and assertion of identities that coalesce and galvanise actors into contests of power and control over the public sphere. To better understand the outcomes of the localisation of the internet, the Indonesian experience is traced through two recent episodes: the student movement leading to the downfall of President Suharto in 1998, and the more recent rise of the Jihad Troopers. Whether the internet will be sustained as a cyber-civic space or will instead strengthen the tendency towards perpetual resistance and political crisis is the outstanding question in Indonesia today.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

ADITJONDRO, G. J. (2000), 'Notes on jihad forces in Maluku' http://www.angelfire. com/rock/hotburrito/laskar/aditjondro500.html Google Scholar

ADITJONDRO, G. J. (2002), 'Al-Qaeda, atau Permainan Tentara? Kepentingan Militer di Balik 'Konflik Antar Agama' di Poso, Sulawesi Tengah' http://www.geocities.com/ kariu67/gja110402.htm Google Scholar

BBC NEWS (2000), 'Muslims threaten jihad in Indonesia' http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/ world/asia-pacific/703749.stm Google Scholar

BBC NEWS (2002), 'Who are the Laskar Jihad?' http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asiapaci fic/770263.stm Google Scholar

BENTHAM, J. (1843), 'Panopticon; or, the inspection-house; containing the idea of a new principle of construction applicable to any sort of establishment, in which persons of any description are to be kept under inspection; and in particular to penitentiary-houses, prisons, poor-houses, lazarettos, houses of industry, manufactories, hospitals, workhouses, mad-houses, and schools: with a plan of management adapted to the principle: in a series of letters, written in the year 1787, from Creche in White Russia, to a friend in England' in J. Bouwring (ed.), The Works of Jeremy Bentham (Volume IV), Edinburgh, William Tait. Google Scholar

CASTELLS, M. (1997), The Power of Identity: The Information Age—Economy, Society, and Culture, Oxford, Blackwell. The Power of Identity: The Information Age—Economy, Society, and Culture Google Scholar

DERRIDA, J. (1974), Of Grammatology, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press. Of Grammatology Google Scholar

DE TOCQUEVILLE, A. (1969), Democracy in America (edited by J. P. Mayer), Garden City, Doubleday. Google Scholar

DOUGLASS, M. and FRIEDMANN, J. (1998), Cities for Citizens: Planning and the Rise of Civil Society in a Global Age, London, John Wiley. Cities for Citizens: Planning and the Rise of Civil Society in a Global Age Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

FOUCAULT, M. (1979), Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, New York, Vintage Books. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison Google Scholar

FRIEDMANN, J. (1998), 'The new political economy of planning: the rise of civil society in M. Douglass and J. Friedmann (eds), Cities for Citizens: Planning and the Rise of Civil Society in a Global Age, London, John Wiley, 1938. The new political economy of planning: the rise of civil society Cities for Citizens: Planning and the Rise of Civil Society in a Global Age Google Scholar

GRAHAM, S. (2000), 'Constructing premium network spaces: reflections on infrastructure network and contemporary urban development', International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 24, 183–200. Constructing premium network spaces: reflections on infrastructure network and contemporary urban development International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 24 183 200 Google Scholar

GRAMSCI, A. (1971), Selections from the Prison Notebooks, London, Lawrence and Wishart. Selections from the Prison Notebooks Google Scholar

HARSONO, A. (2002), 'Profile: Jafar Umar Thalib' http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asiapaci fic/1975345.stm Google Scholar

HEGEL, G. W. F. (1967), Hegel's Philosophy of Right, New York, Oxford University Press. Hegel's Philosophy of Right Google Scholar

HILL, D. and SEN, K. (2000), Media, Culture and Politics in Indonesia, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Media, Culture and Politics in Indonesia Google Scholar

KITLEY, P. (1994), 'Fine tuning control: commercial television in Indonesia', Continuum: The Australian Journal of Media and Culture, 8, 103–23. Fine tuning control: commercial television in Indonesia Continuum: The Australian Journal of Media and Culture 8 103 23 Google Scholar

LASKAR JIHAD ONLINE (2000a), 'Jihad Troopers (Laskar Jihad)' http://www.laskarjihad. or.id/english/article/ljtroopers.htm Google Scholar

LASKAR JIHAD ONLINE (2000b), 'Riwayat Hidup Al Ustadz Ja'far Umar Thalib' http://www.laskarjihad.or.id/about/ cvjafar.htm Google Scholar

LEFEBVRE, H. (1991), The Production of Space, London, Basil Blackwell. The Production of Space Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

LOCKE, J. (1690), 'The second treatise of government' in C. B. McPherson (ed.) (1980), John Locke's Second Treatise of Government, Indianapolis and Cambridge, Hackett Publishing. Google Scholar

MARCUS, D. (1998), 'Indonesia revolt was net-driven', Boston Globe, 23 May. Google Scholar

NOORHAIDI, HASAN (2001), 'Islamic radicalism and the crisis of the nation-state', ISIM Newsletter http://www.isim.nl/newsletter/ 7/regional/1.html Google Scholar

ORWELL, G. (1949), Nineteen Eighty-Four, London, Secker & Warburg. Nineteen Eighty-Four Google Scholar

TELKOM, P. T. (1996), 30 Tahun Telekomunikasi Indonesia, Bandung, Telkom. 30 Tahun Telekomunikasi Indonesia Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Lim, Merlyna