Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Explicación para el surgimiento de la s apical en un dialecto de español del Caribe

Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (2004), 81, (3), 275–302.

Abstract

Aunque en el español hablado en la zona este de la República Dominicana la s normalmente es laminal, en caso de ir precedida por una consonante líquida su articulación puede ser apical. Valiéndonos de la teoría de optimidad (Prince y Smolensky 1993, 2002) y la teoría de correspondencia (McCarthy y Prince 1995), en este trabajo proponemos una explicación para el surgimiento de la s apical en términos de la interacción entre principios de fidelidad que requieren que se mantenga la identidad entre el inducto y el educto, y un principio de alineamiento consonántico, ALINEAR-C(PDA), que requiere que los rasgos de punto de articulación de toda consonante estén alineados con el margen izquierdo de una sílaba (Itô y Mester 1994, 1999, Piñeros 2003). Además de ALINEAR-C(PDA), defendemos la existencia de un principio universal que prohíbe las consonantes fricativas sibilantes geminadas, *SIBIGEM, a causa de su extrema complejidad articulatoria. Este principio es responsable por el hecho que las secuencias de líquida + s son las únicas secuencias consonánticas en las que la líquida no se asimila completamente a la consonante que le sigue, sino que impone sus rasgos de punto de articulación sobre la s dando así lugar al surgimiento de la s apical.

Although the normal realization of s in a variety of Spanish spoken in the Eastern region of the Dominican Republic is as a laminal sound, when preceded by a liquid consonant, it surfaces as an apical allophone. An analysis couched within the frameworks of Optimality Theory and Correspondence is proposed, which accounts for the emergence of apical s in terms of the interaction between faithfulness constraints requiring the identity of input and output forms, and an alignment constraint, ALIGN-C(Place of articulation), requiring that the place features of every consonant be aligned with the left edge of a syllable. In addition to ALIGN-C(Place), a markedness constraint against geminate sibilant fricatives is proposed, based on the articulatory complexity of this sound class. This principle is responsible for the fact that liquid + s sequences are the only consonant clusters in which a syllable-final liquid does not undergo total assimilation to the following consonant, but becomes the trigger of assimilation, thereby causing the following s to become apical.

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Piñeros, Carlos-Eduardo