Labour History

‘Truth and Time Against the World’s Wrongs’: Montagu Scott, Jim Case and the Lost World of the BrisbaneWorkerCartoonists

Labour History (2010), 99, (1), 115–148.

Abstract

In a 1920 book celebrating the famed labour movement cartoonist Claude Marquet, his long-time editor, Henry Boote, told of how, ‘every week tens of thousands of men and women derived from [his] vivid imagery keen satire instruction on all the vital questions’. This was a compliment Boote might have paid to a number Marquet’s cartooning comrades: the Brisbane Worker duo of Montagu Scott and Jim Case, or the well-known London-based Australian Will Dyson. Comparatively speaking, the Queenslanders have been neglected by labour historians. Yet, beginning with Scott, the Worker cartoonists set the stylistic and thematic template for the likes of Marquet and Dyson. Unashamedly populist, with a fiercely racialist take on working-class politics, their propaganda constituted an important part of the precocious success enjoyed by the Queensland and federal Labor parties before the catastrophic events of World War I.

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Endnotes

1.Montagu Scott, ‘Will he down him this time?’, Worker(), 21March1896. Google Scholar

2.Lyndon Megarrity, “White Queensland’: the Queensland government’s ideological position on the use of Pacific Island labourers in the sugar sector 1880-1901’, Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol.52, no.1, 2006, p.7. ‘Griffilwraith’ referred to the pro-business forces allied to McIlwraith and Samuel Griffith. McIlwraith subsequently lost the premiership, serving as chief secretary and secretary for railways from October. Google Scholar

3. Worker(), 9December1899. On the 1899 election, seeDavid Day, Andrew Fisher: Prime Minister of Australia,Fourth Estate,, 2008, pp.58-59; and, in more detail,Raymond Evans, ‘The politics of leprosy: race, disease and the rise of Labor’, inJoanne Scott andKay Saunders(eds), The World’s First Labor Government,Royal Historical Society of Queensland,, 2001. Google Scholar

4. Worker(), 6January1900. Google Scholar

5.The NSW ‘prototype’ argument is most famously made by Bede Nairn, Civilising Capitalism: The Beginnings of the Australian Labor Party(2nd ed.),Melbourne University Press,, 1989, and more critically byRay Markey, The Making of the Labor Party in New South Wales, 1880-1900,UNSWP,, 1988. Google Scholar

6.SeeD.P. Crook, ‘The Crucible – Labour in Coalition, 1903-7’inD.J. Murphy,R.B. Joyce andColin A. Hughes(eds), Prelude to Power: The Rise of the Labour Party in Queensland 1885-1915,Jacaranda,, 1970. On the concept of the two-party system more broadly, consultNick Dyrenfurth andPaul Strangio(eds), Confusion: The Making of the Australian Two-Party System,Melbourne University Press,, 2009. Google Scholar

7.On this concept, seeSean Scalmer andTerry Irving, ‘Labour intellectuals in Australia: modes, traditions, generations, transformations’, International Review of Social History, vol.50, no.1, April, 2005, pp.1-26;Sean Scalmer, ‘Being practical in early and contemporary Labor politics: a Labourist critique’, Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol.43, no.3, 1997, pp.301-311;Nick Dyrenfurth andMarian Quartly, ‘Fat man v ‘the people’: labour intellectuals and the making of oppositional identities, 1890–1901’, Labour History, no.92, May2007, pp.31-56. Google Scholar

8.Nick Dyrenfurth andMarian Quartly, “All the world over’: the transnational world of Australian radical and labour cartoonists, 1880s to 1920’, inRichard Scully andMarian Quartly(eds), Drawing the Line: Using Cartoons as Historical Evidence,Monash University E-press,, 2009, pp.6.1-6.47. Google Scholar

9.Henry E. Boote, ‘A Foreword’, inClaude Marquet, Cartoons by Claude Marquet: a commemorative volume, with appreciations by leading representatives of literature and politics,The Worker Trustee,, 1920, p.i. Google Scholar

10. Ross McMullin, Will Dyson: Australia’s Radical Genius,Scribe,, 2006. On Marquet, seeMarian Quartly, ‘Making working class heroes: Labor cartoonists and the Australian Worker, 1903-16’, Labour History, no.89, November2005, pp.159-178;Vane Lindesay andJohn McLaren, ‘The War Cartoons of Claude Marquet’, inAnna Rutherford andJames Wieland(eds), War: Australia’s Creative Response,Dangaroo Press,, 1997. More biographically, seeVane Lindesay, ‘Marquet, Claude Arthur (1869-1920)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Vol. 10,Melbourne University Press,, 1986, pp.417-418, cited athttp://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A100408b.htm, accessed November 2009. Google Scholar

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12.For details on the extraordinary growth of labour and radical press, seeNick Dyrenfurth, Heroes and Villains: The Rise and Fall of the Early Australian Labor Party,Australian Scholarly Publishing,, 2010, ch. 2;Dyrenfurth andQuartly, ‘All the World Over’;B.J. Guyatt, ‘The Publicists – the Labour Press, 1880-1915’, inMurphy, Prelude to Power;Frank Bongiorno, ‘Constituting Labour: The Radical Press in Victoria, 1885-1914’, inAnn Curthoys andJulianne Schultz(eds), Journalism, Print, Politics and Popular Culture,University of Queensland Press,, 1999;Bruce Scates, A New Australia: Citizenship, Radicalism and the First Republic,Cambridge University Press,, 1997, ch. 2 (especially pp.57-73) andH.J. Gibbney, Labor in Print: A Guide to the People Who Created a Labor Press in Australia between 1850 and 1939,ANU Press,, 1975. Google Scholar

13.Nick Dyrenfurth, ‘Rethinking Labor tradition: synthesising discourse and experience’, Labour History, no.90, May2006, p.187. This argument is expanded upon in Dyrenfurth, Heroes and Villains, ‘Introduction’and ch. 2. Google Scholar

14.Edgar, ‘Scott’, ADB. The next three paragraphs draw heavily upon her biographical note. TheBulletineven claimed that Scott enjoyed a career as‘a fairly good amateur actor’(Bulletin, 27May1909). Google Scholar

15.Alfred Clint, ‘People We Know, No. II (“In my gallery thy picture hangs”)’, Sydney Punch, December1878. Google Scholar

16.Ross Woodward, ‘Queen Victoria versus ‘King Billy’: Images as History’,Refereed Conference Paper presented to the Australian Council of University Art and Design Schools’ Annual Conference,Tasmanian School of Art, University of Tasmania, 2003, cited athttp://www.acuads.com.au/conf2003/papers_refereed/woodrow_1of2.pdf, accessed November 2009. Google Scholar

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20.Montagu Scott, ‘Wealth and want: the Queensland Samson’, Boomerang, 22December1888. This image is reproduced in Dyrenfurth,‘A terrible monster’, p.94. Google Scholar

21.Montagu Scott, ‘The Devil We Have’, Boomerang, 3August1889. Google Scholar

22.Montagu Scott, ‘Imperialism Vetoes the Immigration Bill’, Boomerang, 6April1888. Britain represented by the figure of ‘Policeman Knutsford’ reproaches her in a symbolic nod to Britain’s diplomatic sensitivities as regards China: ‘See here, young woman! If you do anything so un-British as shooting, I’ll push my bayonet through you.’ Scott was here drawing upon another, an earlier and no less infamous anti-Chinese image,E.M. Murray’s‘Wake, Australia Wake!’(Boomerang, 11February1888), which showed a pig-tailed Chinese man with a knife between his teeth entering the bedroom of a sleeping Queensland beauty. Google Scholar

23.Montagu Scott, ‘Where are the Police?’, Boomerang, 4August1888. Scott’s commentary directly reacted to the Normanton anti-Malay riots of the same year. See Jacqui Donegan and Raymond Evans,‘Running amok: the Normanton race riots of 1888 and the genesis of white Australia’, inJournal of Australian Studies, no.71, 2001, pp.83-98. Google Scholar

24.Marilyn Lake and Henry Reynolds, Drawing the Global Colour Line: White Men’s Countries and the Question of Racial Equality,Melbourne University Press,, 2008, p.2;Ray Markey, ‘Race and Labour in Australia’, The Historian, vol.58, no.2, 1996, p.343. Google Scholar

25.John Rickard, Australia: A Cultural History(2nd edn),Longman,, 1996, p.108;Markey, ‘Race and Labour in Australia’, p.346;Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (2nd edn), Verso, London, 1991. Google Scholar

26.Dyrenfurth andQuartly, ‘All the world over’, p.06.6;Andrew Markus, Fear and Hatred: Purifying Australia and California, 1850-1901,Hale and Iremonger,, 1979, chs 4, 5 and 8. Google Scholar

27.Markey, ‘Race and Labour in Australia’, p.347, and, more generally,Markey, The Making of the Labor Party. Google Scholar

28.Raymond Evans, A History of Queensland,Cambridge University Press,, 2007, pp.107and129. Google Scholar

29.Rickard, Australia, p.107. Google Scholar

30.On the debate as to the causation of worker racism, seeVerity Burgmann, ‘Who our enemies are: Andrew Markus and the baloney view of Australian racism’, Labour History, no.49, 1985, pp.97-101;Andrew Markus, ‘Explaining the treatment of non-European immigrants in nineteenth century Australia’, Labour History, no.48, 1985, pp.86-91, as well as the earlier collection,Ann Curthoys andAndrew Markus(eds), Who Are Our Enemies? Racism and the Australian Working Classes,Hale and Iremonger,, 1978. Google Scholar

31.Robin Gollan, Radical and Working Class Politics: a Study of Eastern Australia, 1850-1910,Melbourne University Press,, 1960, pp.128-129, pp.145-150and ch. 8. Google Scholar

32.Ross McMullin, The Light on the Hill: The Australian Labor Party, 1891-1991,Oxford University Press,, 1992, p.26. Google Scholar

33.TheWorkerboard first met on 14 February 1890. It consisted of Gilbert Casey (chairman), Albert Hinchcliffe (treasurer), Charles Seymour (secretary), Matt Reid and W. Mabbott. In 1893, Blackwell was replaced by W.G. Higgs. Having won a seat in the Queensland parliament in 1899, Higgs resigned, passing the editorial baton to Charlie Seymour who subsequently appointed Frank Kenna to the position. When Kenna entered parliament in 1902, H.E. Boote edited the paper until 1911. Seymour once again took charge before Jack Hanlon was appointed, holding the position from 1915 to 1943 (AWU, The ‘Worker’s’ First Seventy Years, pp.22and23). Google Scholar

34.Mark Hearn andHarry Knowles, One Big Union: A History of the Australian Workers’ Union,Cambridge University Press,, 1996, pp.102, 106. Google Scholar

35.Guyatt, ‘The Publicists’, p.250. Google Scholar

36.AWU, The ‘Worker’s’ First Seventy Years, p.23. Google Scholar

37.SeeSimon Booth, Picturing Politics: Cartoons of Melbourne’s Labour Press, 1890-1919, UnpublishedPhD thesis,University of Melbourne,School of Historical Studies, 2008, andDyrenfurth andQuartly, ‘All the World Over’, pp.6.13-6.17. OnQuiz, seeMahood, The Loaded Line, p.217. Google Scholar

38.Livingstone Hopkins, ‘The Labour Crisis’, Bulletin, 16August1890(SeeDyrenfurth andQuartly, ‘Fat Man v ‘The People”, pp.31-120). Apart from American imagery, he is clearly drawing on Scott’sBoomerangimage of Capital and Labour from the previous year which itself alluded to Aesop’s fable of two goats that butted heads (Montagu Scott, ‘One of them must lie down or – ’, Boomerang, 13April1889). On the historical background andfin de siécleeconomic and cultural factors surrounding the cartooning choice of Fat Man, seeDyrenfurth andQuartly, ‘Fat Man v “The People”’, pp.37-40andDyrenfurth andQuartly, ‘All the world over’, p.06.12. Google Scholar

39.Dyrenfurth andQuartly, ‘All the World Over’, p.06.6. Google Scholar

40.Montagu Scott, ‘The Spirit of the Times’, Boomerang, 13September1890. See alsoMontagu Scott, ‘Which One Will Get Up First?’, Boomerang, 30August1890. Google Scholar

41.Montagu Scott, ‘Why Don’t They Drop Him?’, Worker(), 17April1897;Montagu Scott, ‘The Middle Man’, Worker(), 12January1895;Montagu Scott, ‘The Bushwhackers’ Brigade’, Worker(), 20January1900. Google Scholar

42.Montagu Scott, ‘All the World Over’, Worker(), 23May1903. Google Scholar

43.Michael Leach, “Manly, True and White’: Masculine Identity and Australian Socialism’, inGeoff Stokes(ed.), The Politics of Identity in Australia,Cambridge University Press,, 1997;Dyrenfurth, ‘A terrible monster’, pp.91-96. Google Scholar

44.Montagu Scott, ‘The Governor’s Speech’, Worker(), 28July1894andMontagu Scott, ‘Labour’s First Step on Entry’, Worker(), 13May1893. Google Scholar

45.Montagu Scott, ‘It Blocks the Way’, Worker(), 30September1905. Google Scholar

46.Montagu Scott, ‘Falstaff Up To Date’, Worker(), 8May1893. Google Scholar

47.Montagu Scott, ‘Labour’s Empire Day’, Worker(), 26May1906. Google Scholar

48.Chinese immigration was virtually eliminated by the Statebeforethe White Australia policy of 1901. Between 1888 and 1901 Australia’s Chinese population fell from about 50,000 to about 32,000 (Keith Willey, ‘Australia’s Population’, inCurthoys andMarkus, Who Are Our Enemies?, p.5). Google Scholar

49.Montagu Scott, ‘Up for vagrancy, Or what may soon happen in Queensland’, Worker(), 25July1896. See also Scott’s image of a rural town dominated by Chinese; ‘The Yellow Agony (‘A VIEW IN CHINA? – Oh dear, no! – It’s only the main street in one of our inland towns’), Worker(), 16January1897. In an image from the previous year the racial invader is Japanese, literally fanning out across Queensland (‘The March of the Jap’, Worker(), 16May1896) and, from 1897, a sword-wielding Japanese robber enters the bedroom window of a female White Queensland‘A Coalition Government: A Coalition with the Japanese to ruin Queensland’, Worker(), 31July1897. Google Scholar

50.Montagu Scott, ‘The Curse of Cheap Labour’, Worker(), 20January1900. Google Scholar

51.Robin Archer, Why Is There No Labor Party in the United States?,Princeton University Press,, 2007, p.58. Other variants of this argument appear inMarkus, Fear and Loathing, pp.211-219, andMarkey, The Making of the Labor Party, ch. 10. Google Scholar

52.Montagu Scott, ‘Two Peoples – One Destiny’, Worker(), 14June1902;Montagu Scott, ‘The Loaves and Fishes’, Worker(), 6October1894. Google Scholar

53.Mahood suggests that the Goanna might be Ebenezer Murray (Mahood, The Loaded Line, p.237). He also appeared to pen other anti-Semitic and anti-Asian images under the ironic pseudonym, ‘S.F. Grifelwaite’. Google Scholar

54.The Goanna,‘The Money Lender to the Unemployed’, Worker(), 11June1892. SeePeter Love, Labour and the Money Power: Australian Labour Populism 1890-1950,Melbourne University Press,, 1984, pp.6, 37-38. For a broader reading of anti-Semitism on the Left, seePhilip Mendes, ‘Left attitudes towards Jews: Antisemitism and Philosemitism’, Australian Journal of Jewish Studies, vol.9, no.1, 1995, pp.7-44. Google Scholar

55.Donald Dewey, The Art of Ill Will: The Story of American Political Cartoons,New York University Press,, p.179. Google Scholar

56.Richard Levy(ed.), Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution,:ABC-CLIO, 2005, pp.98-107. Google Scholar

57.Worth Robert Miller, ‘Educating the masses: cartoons from the populist press of the 1890s’, American Nineteenth Century History, vol.4, no.2, June2003, p.106. Thanks to Harry Knowles for this reference. Google Scholar

58.On social democratic labourism, seeDyrenfurth, Heroes and Villains, ‘Introduction’, andNick Dyrenfurth, ‘What should Labor stand for?’, inNick Dyrenfurth andTim Soutphommasane(eds), All That’s Left: What Labor Should Stand For,UNSWP,, 2010. Google Scholar

59.Love, Money Power, p.1. Consult alsoDyrenfurth, Heroes and Villains, ‘Introduction’. Google Scholar

60.Markey, ‘Populist Politics’, pp.75-76, andMurphy, ‘Queensland’, p.208. Google Scholar

61.Montagu Scott, ‘The Clutch of the Money Power’, Worker(), 22April1899. Google Scholar

62.Lenore Layman, ‘Fighting Fatman Fetteration: Labour Culture and Federation’, inMark Hearn andGreg Patmore(eds), Working the Nation: Working Life and Federation, 1890-1914,Pluto Press,, 2001, p.48. Google Scholar

63.Montagu Scott, ‘Where do I come in?’, Worker(), 10June1899. See alsoMontagu Scott, ‘The Road to Market’, Worker(), 26August1898. Google Scholar

64. Gympie Truth, 2April1901. Google Scholar

65.Montagu Scott, ‘Labor’s Xmas Gift to the Commonwealth’, Worker(), 14December1901. SeeDyrenfurth, Heroes and Villains, ch. 3. Google Scholar

66.Montagu Scott, ‘On Guard’, Worker(), 10November1906. Google Scholar

67.Montagu Scott, ‘The Federal Situation’, Worker(), 7May1904. Google Scholar

68.For more on this iconography and political sea-change, seeDyrenfurth, ‘Labor’s view of fusion’, inDyrenfurth andStrangio(eds), Confusion, pp.78-86. Google Scholar

69.Edgar, ‘Scott’, ADB. Google Scholar

70. Worker(), 22May1909. Google Scholar

71.Artist Unknown,‘Portrait of Jim Case’, 24June1921, Worker(), 27October1921. Google Scholar

72. Bulletin, 3November1921. Google Scholar

73.Murphy, ‘Case’. Google Scholar

74. Australian Worker, 27October1921. Google Scholar

75.Jim Case, ‘The Modern Andromeda’, Worker(), 11March1911. Google Scholar

76.Jim Case, ‘Every Labour Vote Wanted!’, Worker(), 3October1912. Google Scholar

77.Jim Case, ‘The Fusion Army’, Worker(), 22January1910. See alsoJim Case, ‘Anti-National Guttersnipes’, Worker(), 9December1911, and the post-fusion image,Jim Case, ‘The Builder and the Destroyer’, Worker(), 10April1913. Google Scholar

78.Jim Case, ‘Economic Bloodsuckers’, Worker(), 1May1913. Google Scholar

79.Dyrenfurth, ‘Labor’s view of fusion’, pp.99-101. Google Scholar

80.Jim Case, ‘Electors! Will you let him?’, Worker(), 23March1910. See alsoJim Case, Worker(),‘Electors, strengthen it!’, Worker(), 8January1910. Google Scholar

81. Worker(), 21April1910. Google Scholar

82.For example,Frederick Opper, ‘Willie and his Papa’, San Francisco Examiner, 7August1900. Surveys of this cartooning phenomenoncan be found inStephen Hess andMilton Kaplan, The Ungentlemanly Art: a History of American Political Cartoons,Macmillan,, 1968, p.124;Dewey, Art of Ill Will, p.124;William Murrell, A History of American Graphic Humor: 1865-1938, Vol. 2,Macmillan,, 1967, p.176. Google Scholar

83.Jim Case, ‘Black Friday’, Worker(), 12February1912. Google Scholar

84.Jim Case, ‘Clear the way, ye Lords and Lackeys’, Worker(), 1January1910. Google Scholar

85.Jim Case, ‘Diverting his Attention’, Worker(), 6February1909. Google Scholar

86.Originally published in theAustralian Worker, it was reprinted as a leaflet with distribution running to one million copies.Vane Lindesay, ‘Australian Cartoonists and World War One’, inAnna Rutherford andJames Wieland(eds), War: Australia’s Creative Response,Dangaroo Press,, 1997, p.84. See alsoVane Lindesay andJohn McLaren, ‘The War Cartoons of Claude Marquet’, inRutherford andWieland, Australia’s Creative Response). Google Scholar

87.Barry York, ‘The Maltese, White Australia, and conscription: ‘Il-Tfal Ta Billy Hughes’, Labour History, no.57, November1989, p.1. Google Scholar

88.Jim Case, ‘History Repeated – A Famous Ancient Ruse’, Worker(), 28September1916. Google Scholar

89.Nick Dyrenfurth, ‘Labor’s fusion legacy’, inDyrenfurth andStrangio(eds), Confusion, pp.293-96, andDyrenfurth, Heroes and Villains, ch. 6. Google Scholar

90.For instance,Will Dyson, ‘Now or Never’, Labor Call, 19October1916. Google Scholar

91.Jim Case, ‘The Sifting’, Worker(), 23November1916. On this topic, seeDyrenfurth andQuartly, ‘All the World Over’, pp.06.31-06.38. Google Scholar

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93.Marquet similarly dispensed with his populist imagery of heroic rural workers after 1918, preferring to depict the ALP as a blue-collar, industrial worker (Claude Marquet, ‘Dignity and Impudence’, Australian Worker, 25September1919) who often engaged global capital in the more universal struggle between classes (Claude Marquet, ‘When They Meet’, Australian Worker, 24April1919). Google Scholar

94.Jim Case, ‘Breaking the Chains’, Worker(), 22August1918. Google Scholar

95.Jim Case, ‘Flicking them off’, Worker(), 10July1919. See alsoJim Case, ‘The Meddler’ Worker(), 10July1919. Google Scholar

96.Jim Case, ‘His Masterpiece’, Worker(), 8July1920. Google Scholar

97.Evans, The Red Flag Riots, ch. 4. Google Scholar

98.Jim Case, ‘Carving the ‘Corpus”, Truth, 26December1920. Google Scholar

99.Jim Case, ‘Onward Christian Soldier’, Truth, 20March1921. Google Scholar

100.Jim Case, ‘Australia “Alarmed”’, Truth, 2January1921. Google Scholar

101.Jim Case, ‘Will They Pull Together?’, Truth, 6March1921. Google Scholar

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1.Montagu Scott, ‘Will he down him this time?’, Worker(), 21March1896. Google Scholar

2.Lyndon Megarrity, “White Queensland’: the Queensland government’s ideological position on the use of Pacific Island labourers in the sugar sector 1880-1901’, Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol.52, no.1, 2006, p.7. ‘Griffilwraith’ referred to the pro-business forces allied to McIlwraith and Samuel Griffith. McIlwraith subsequently lost the premiership, serving as chief secretary and secretary for railways from October. Google Scholar

3. Worker(), 9December1899. On the 1899 election, seeDavid Day, Andrew Fisher: Prime Minister of Australia,Fourth Estate,, 2008, pp.58-59; and, in more detail,Raymond Evans, ‘The politics of leprosy: race, disease and the rise of Labor’, inJoanne Scott andKay Saunders(eds), The World’s First Labor Government,Royal Historical Society of Queensland,, 2001. Google Scholar

4. Worker(), 6January1900. Google Scholar

5.The NSW ‘prototype’ argument is most famously made by Bede Nairn, Civilising Capitalism: The Beginnings of the Australian Labor Party(2nd ed.),Melbourne University Press,, 1989, and more critically byRay Markey, The Making of the Labor Party in New South Wales, 1880-1900,UNSWP,, 1988. Google Scholar

6.SeeD.P. Crook, ‘The Crucible – Labour in Coalition, 1903-7’inD.J. Murphy,R.B. Joyce andColin A. Hughes(eds), Prelude to Power: The Rise of the Labour Party in Queensland 1885-1915,Jacaranda,, 1970. On the concept of the two-party system more broadly, consultNick Dyrenfurth andPaul Strangio(eds), Confusion: The Making of the Australian Two-Party System,Melbourne University Press,, 2009. Google Scholar

7.On this concept, seeSean Scalmer andTerry Irving, ‘Labour intellectuals in Australia: modes, traditions, generations, transformations’, International Review of Social History, vol.50, no.1, April, 2005, pp.1-26;Sean Scalmer, ‘Being practical in early and contemporary Labor politics: a Labourist critique’, Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol.43, no.3, 1997, pp.301-311;Nick Dyrenfurth andMarian Quartly, ‘Fat man v ‘the people’: labour intellectuals and the making of oppositional identities, 1890–1901’, Labour History, no.92, May2007, pp.31-56. Google Scholar

8.Nick Dyrenfurth andMarian Quartly, “All the world over’: the transnational world of Australian radical and labour cartoonists, 1880s to 1920’, inRichard Scully andMarian Quartly(eds), Drawing the Line: Using Cartoons as Historical Evidence,Monash University E-press,, 2009, pp.6.1-6.47. Google Scholar

9.Henry E. Boote, ‘A Foreword’, inClaude Marquet, Cartoons by Claude Marquet: a commemorative volume, with appreciations by leading representatives of literature and politics,The Worker Trustee,, 1920, p.i. Google Scholar

10. Ross McMullin, Will Dyson: Australia’s Radical Genius,Scribe,, 2006. On Marquet, seeMarian Quartly, ‘Making working class heroes: Labor cartoonists and the Australian Worker, 1903-16’, Labour History, no.89, November2005, pp.159-178;Vane Lindesay andJohn McLaren, ‘The War Cartoons of Claude Marquet’, inAnna Rutherford andJames Wieland(eds), War: Australia’s Creative Response,Dangaroo Press,, 1997. More biographically, seeVane Lindesay, ‘Marquet, Claude Arthur (1869-1920)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Vol. 10,Melbourne University Press,, 1986, pp.417-418, cited athttp://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A100408b.htm, accessed November 2009. Google Scholar

11.Joe Harris, The Bitter Fight: A Pictorial History of the Australian Labor Movement,University of Queensland Press,, 1970;Marguerite Mahood, The Loaded Line: Australian Political Caricature 1788-1901,Melbourne University Press,, 1973;D.J. Murphy(ed.), Labor in Politics: the State Labor Parties in Australia, 1880-1920,University of Queensland Press,, 1975;Murphy, Joyce andHughes(eds), Prelude to Power;Australian Workers’ Union, The ‘Worker’s’ First Seventy Years, The Worker,, 1960;Suzanne Edgar, ‘Scott, Eugene Montagu (Monty) (1835-1909)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Vol. 6,Melbourne University Press,, 1976, p.95, cited athttp://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A060108b.htm, accessed November 2009;D. J. Murphy, ‘Case, James Thomas (1884-1921)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Vol. 7,Melbourne University Press,, 1979, pp.585-586, cited athttp://www.adb.online.anu. edu.au/biogs/A070592b.htm, accessed November 2009. Raymond Evans also reproduces a good number of Case’s images in hisThe Red Flag Riots: a Study of Intolerance,University of Queensland Press,, 1988. Google Scholar

12.For details on the extraordinary growth of labour and radical press, seeNick Dyrenfurth, Heroes and Villains: The Rise and Fall of the Early Australian Labor Party,Australian Scholarly Publishing,, 2010, ch. 2;Dyrenfurth andQuartly, ‘All the World Over’;B.J. Guyatt, ‘The Publicists – the Labour Press, 1880-1915’, inMurphy, Prelude to Power;Frank Bongiorno, ‘Constituting Labour: The Radical Press in Victoria, 1885-1914’, inAnn Curthoys andJulianne Schultz(eds), Journalism, Print, Politics and Popular Culture,University of Queensland Press,, 1999;Bruce Scates, A New Australia: Citizenship, Radicalism and the First Republic,Cambridge University Press,, 1997, ch. 2 (especially pp.57-73) andH.J. Gibbney, Labor in Print: A Guide to the People Who Created a Labor Press in Australia between 1850 and 1939,ANU Press,, 1975. Google Scholar

13.Nick Dyrenfurth, ‘Rethinking Labor tradition: synthesising discourse and experience’, Labour History, no.90, May2006, p.187. This argument is expanded upon in Dyrenfurth, Heroes and Villains, ‘Introduction’and ch. 2. Google Scholar

14.Edgar, ‘Scott’, ADB. The next three paragraphs draw heavily upon her biographical note. TheBulletineven claimed that Scott enjoyed a career as‘a fairly good amateur actor’(Bulletin, 27May1909). Google Scholar

15.Alfred Clint, ‘People We Know, No. II (“In my gallery thy picture hangs”)’, Sydney Punch, December1878. Google Scholar

16.Ross Woodward, ‘Queen Victoria versus ‘King Billy’: Images as History’,Refereed Conference Paper presented to the Australian Council of University Art and Design Schools’ Annual Conference,Tasmanian School of Art, University of Tasmania, 2003, cited athttp://www.acuads.com.au/conf2003/papers_refereed/woodrow_1of2.pdf, accessed November 2009. Google Scholar

17.Mahood, The Loaded Line, p.66;Edgar, ‘Scott’, ADB. Google Scholar

18.SeeMahood, The Loaded Line, pp.211-212. Google Scholar

19.Marilyn Lake, ‘The politics of respectability: identifying the masculinist context’, Historical Studies, no.22, 1986, pp.116-131, andMarilyn Lake, ‘Socialism and manhood: the case of William Lane’, Labour History, no.50, May1986, pp.54-66. See alsoNick Dyrenfurth, “A terrible monster’: from ‘employers to capitalists’ in the 1885-86 Melbourne wharf labourers’ strike’, Labour History, no.94, May2008, pp.92-94. Google Scholar

20.Montagu Scott, ‘Wealth and want: the Queensland Samson’, Boomerang, 22December1888. This image is reproduced in Dyrenfurth,‘A terrible monster’, p.94. Google Scholar

21.Montagu Scott, ‘The Devil We Have’, Boomerang, 3August1889. Google Scholar

22.Montagu Scott, ‘Imperialism Vetoes the Immigration Bill’, Boomerang, 6April1888. Britain represented by the figure of ‘Policeman Knutsford’ reproaches her in a symbolic nod to Britain’s diplomatic sensitivities as regards China: ‘See here, young woman! If you do anything so un-British as shooting, I’ll push my bayonet through you.’ Scott was here drawing upon another, an earlier and no less infamous anti-Chinese image,E.M. Murray’s‘Wake, Australia Wake!’(Boomerang, 11February1888), which showed a pig-tailed Chinese man with a knife between his teeth entering the bedroom of a sleeping Queensland beauty. Google Scholar

23.Montagu Scott, ‘Where are the Police?’, Boomerang, 4August1888. Scott’s commentary directly reacted to the Normanton anti-Malay riots of the same year. See Jacqui Donegan and Raymond Evans,‘Running amok: the Normanton race riots of 1888 and the genesis of white Australia’, inJournal of Australian Studies, no.71, 2001, pp.83-98. Google Scholar

24.Marilyn Lake and Henry Reynolds, Drawing the Global Colour Line: White Men’s Countries and the Question of Racial Equality,Melbourne University Press,, 2008, p.2;Ray Markey, ‘Race and Labour in Australia’, The Historian, vol.58, no.2, 1996, p.343. Google Scholar

25.John Rickard, Australia: A Cultural History(2nd edn),Longman,, 1996, p.108;Markey, ‘Race and Labour in Australia’, p.346;Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (2nd edn), Verso, London, 1991. Google Scholar

26.Dyrenfurth andQuartly, ‘All the world over’, p.06.6;Andrew Markus, Fear and Hatred: Purifying Australia and California, 1850-1901,Hale and Iremonger,, 1979, chs 4, 5 and 8. Google Scholar

27.Markey, ‘Race and Labour in Australia’, p.347, and, more generally,Markey, The Making of the Labor Party. Google Scholar

28.Raymond Evans, A History of Queensland,Cambridge University Press,, 2007, pp.107and129. Google Scholar

29.Rickard, Australia, p.107. Google Scholar

30.On the debate as to the causation of worker racism, seeVerity Burgmann, ‘Who our enemies are: Andrew Markus and the baloney view of Australian racism’, Labour History, no.49, 1985, pp.97-101;Andrew Markus, ‘Explaining the treatment of non-European immigrants in nineteenth century Australia’, Labour History, no.48, 1985, pp.86-91, as well as the earlier collection,Ann Curthoys andAndrew Markus(eds), Who Are Our Enemies? Racism and the Australian Working Classes,Hale and Iremonger,, 1978. Google Scholar

31.Robin Gollan, Radical and Working Class Politics: a Study of Eastern Australia, 1850-1910,Melbourne University Press,, 1960, pp.128-129, pp.145-150and ch. 8. Google Scholar

32.Ross McMullin, The Light on the Hill: The Australian Labor Party, 1891-1991,Oxford University Press,, 1992, p.26. Google Scholar

33.TheWorkerboard first met on 14 February 1890. It consisted of Gilbert Casey (chairman), Albert Hinchcliffe (treasurer), Charles Seymour (secretary), Matt Reid and W. Mabbott. In 1893, Blackwell was replaced by W.G. Higgs. Having won a seat in the Queensland parliament in 1899, Higgs resigned, passing the editorial baton to Charlie Seymour who subsequently appointed Frank Kenna to the position. When Kenna entered parliament in 1902, H.E. Boote edited the paper until 1911. Seymour once again took charge before Jack Hanlon was appointed, holding the position from 1915 to 1943 (AWU, The ‘Worker’s’ First Seventy Years, pp.22and23). Google Scholar

34.Mark Hearn andHarry Knowles, One Big Union: A History of the Australian Workers’ Union,Cambridge University Press,, 1996, pp.102, 106. Google Scholar

35.Guyatt, ‘The Publicists’, p.250. Google Scholar

36.AWU, The ‘Worker’s’ First Seventy Years, p.23. Google Scholar

37.SeeSimon Booth, Picturing Politics: Cartoons of Melbourne’s Labour Press, 1890-1919, UnpublishedPhD thesis,University of Melbourne,School of Historical Studies, 2008, andDyrenfurth andQuartly, ‘All the World Over’, pp.6.13-6.17. OnQuiz, seeMahood, The Loaded Line, p.217. Google Scholar

38.Livingstone Hopkins, ‘The Labour Crisis’, Bulletin, 16August1890(SeeDyrenfurth andQuartly, ‘Fat Man v ‘The People”, pp.31-120). Apart from American imagery, he is clearly drawing on Scott’sBoomerangimage of Capital and Labour from the previous year which itself alluded to Aesop’s fable of two goats that butted heads (Montagu Scott, ‘One of them must lie down or – ’, Boomerang, 13April1889). On the historical background andfin de siécleeconomic and cultural factors surrounding the cartooning choice of Fat Man, seeDyrenfurth andQuartly, ‘Fat Man v “The People”’, pp.37-40andDyrenfurth andQuartly, ‘All the world over’, p.06.12. Google Scholar

39.Dyrenfurth andQuartly, ‘All the World Over’, p.06.6. Google Scholar

40.Montagu Scott, ‘The Spirit of the Times’, Boomerang, 13September1890. See alsoMontagu Scott, ‘Which One Will Get Up First?’, Boomerang, 30August1890. Google Scholar

41.Montagu Scott, ‘Why Don’t They Drop Him?’, Worker(), 17April1897;Montagu Scott, ‘The Middle Man’, Worker(), 12January1895;Montagu Scott, ‘The Bushwhackers’ Brigade’, Worker(), 20January1900. Google Scholar

42.Montagu Scott, ‘All the World Over’, Worker(), 23May1903. Google Scholar

43.Michael Leach, “Manly, True and White’: Masculine Identity and Australian Socialism’, inGeoff Stokes(ed.), The Politics of Identity in Australia,Cambridge University Press,, 1997;Dyrenfurth, ‘A terrible monster’, pp.91-96. Google Scholar

44.Montagu Scott, ‘The Governor’s Speech’, Worker(), 28July1894andMontagu Scott, ‘Labour’s First Step on Entry’, Worker(), 13May1893. Google Scholar

45.Montagu Scott, ‘It Blocks the Way’, Worker(), 30September1905. Google Scholar

46.Montagu Scott, ‘Falstaff Up To Date’, Worker(), 8May1893. Google Scholar

47.Montagu Scott, ‘Labour’s Empire Day’, Worker(), 26May1906. Google Scholar

48.Chinese immigration was virtually eliminated by the Statebeforethe White Australia policy of 1901. Between 1888 and 1901 Australia’s Chinese population fell from about 50,000 to about 32,000 (Keith Willey, ‘Australia’s Population’, inCurthoys andMarkus, Who Are Our Enemies?, p.5). Google Scholar

49.Montagu Scott, ‘Up for vagrancy, Or what may soon happen in Queensland’, Worker(), 25July1896. See also Scott’s image of a rural town dominated by Chinese; ‘The Yellow Agony (‘A VIEW IN CHINA? – Oh dear, no! – It’s only the main street in one of our inland towns’), Worker(), 16January1897. In an image from the previous year the racial invader is Japanese, literally fanning out across Queensland (‘The March of the Jap’, Worker(), 16May1896) and, from 1897, a sword-wielding Japanese robber enters the bedroom window of a female White Queensland‘A Coalition Government: A Coalition with the Japanese to ruin Queensland’, Worker(), 31July1897. Google Scholar

50.Montagu Scott, ‘The Curse of Cheap Labour’, Worker(), 20January1900. Google Scholar

51.Robin Archer, Why Is There No Labor Party in the United States?,Princeton University Press,, 2007, p.58. Other variants of this argument appear inMarkus, Fear and Loathing, pp.211-219, andMarkey, The Making of the Labor Party, ch. 10. Google Scholar

52.Montagu Scott, ‘Two Peoples – One Destiny’, Worker(), 14June1902;Montagu Scott, ‘The Loaves and Fishes’, Worker(), 6October1894. Google Scholar

53.Mahood suggests that the Goanna might be Ebenezer Murray (Mahood, The Loaded Line, p.237). He also appeared to pen other anti-Semitic and anti-Asian images under the ironic pseudonym, ‘S.F. Grifelwaite’. Google Scholar

54.The Goanna,‘The Money Lender to the Unemployed’, Worker(), 11June1892. SeePeter Love, Labour and the Money Power: Australian Labour Populism 1890-1950,Melbourne University Press,, 1984, pp.6, 37-38. For a broader reading of anti-Semitism on the Left, seePhilip Mendes, ‘Left attitudes towards Jews: Antisemitism and Philosemitism’, Australian Journal of Jewish Studies, vol.9, no.1, 1995, pp.7-44. Google Scholar

55.Donald Dewey, The Art of Ill Will: The Story of American Political Cartoons,New York University Press,, p.179. Google Scholar

56.Richard Levy(ed.), Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution,:ABC-CLIO, 2005, pp.98-107. Google Scholar

57.Worth Robert Miller, ‘Educating the masses: cartoons from the populist press of the 1890s’, American Nineteenth Century History, vol.4, no.2, June2003, p.106. Thanks to Harry Knowles for this reference. Google Scholar

58.On social democratic labourism, seeDyrenfurth, Heroes and Villains, ‘Introduction’, andNick Dyrenfurth, ‘What should Labor stand for?’, inNick Dyrenfurth andTim Soutphommasane(eds), All That’s Left: What Labor Should Stand For,UNSWP,, 2010. Google Scholar

59.Love, Money Power, p.1. Consult alsoDyrenfurth, Heroes and Villains, ‘Introduction’. Google Scholar

60.Markey, ‘Populist Politics’, pp.75-76, andMurphy, ‘Queensland’, p.208. Google Scholar

61.Montagu Scott, ‘The Clutch of the Money Power’, Worker(), 22April1899. Google Scholar

62.Lenore Layman, ‘Fighting Fatman Fetteration: Labour Culture and Federation’, inMark Hearn andGreg Patmore(eds), Working the Nation: Working Life and Federation, 1890-1914,Pluto Press,, 2001, p.48. Google Scholar

63.Montagu Scott, ‘Where do I come in?’, Worker(), 10June1899. See alsoMontagu Scott, ‘The Road to Market’, Worker(), 26August1898. Google Scholar

64. Gympie Truth, 2April1901. Google Scholar

65.Montagu Scott, ‘Labor’s Xmas Gift to the Commonwealth’, Worker(), 14December1901. SeeDyrenfurth, Heroes and Villains, ch. 3. Google Scholar

66.Montagu Scott, ‘On Guard’, Worker(), 10November1906. Google Scholar

67.Montagu Scott, ‘The Federal Situation’, Worker(), 7May1904. Google Scholar

68.For more on this iconography and political sea-change, seeDyrenfurth, ‘Labor’s view of fusion’, inDyrenfurth andStrangio(eds), Confusion, pp.78-86. Google Scholar

69.Edgar, ‘Scott’, ADB. Google Scholar

70. Worker(), 22May1909. Google Scholar

71.Artist Unknown,‘Portrait of Jim Case’, 24June1921, Worker(), 27October1921. Google Scholar

72. Bulletin, 3November1921. Google Scholar

73.Murphy, ‘Case’. Google Scholar

74. Australian Worker, 27October1921. Google Scholar

75.Jim Case, ‘The Modern Andromeda’, Worker(), 11March1911. Google Scholar

76.Jim Case, ‘Every Labour Vote Wanted!’, Worker(), 3October1912. Google Scholar

77.Jim Case, ‘The Fusion Army’, Worker(), 22January1910. See alsoJim Case, ‘Anti-National Guttersnipes’, Worker(), 9December1911, and the post-fusion image,Jim Case, ‘The Builder and the Destroyer’, Worker(), 10April1913. Google Scholar

78.Jim Case, ‘Economic Bloodsuckers’, Worker(), 1May1913. Google Scholar

79.Dyrenfurth, ‘Labor’s view of fusion’, pp.99-101. Google Scholar

80.Jim Case, ‘Electors! Will you let him?’, Worker(), 23March1910. See alsoJim Case, Worker(),‘Electors, strengthen it!’, Worker(), 8January1910. Google Scholar

81. Worker(), 21April1910. Google Scholar

82.For example,Frederick Opper, ‘Willie and his Papa’, San Francisco Examiner, 7August1900. Surveys of this cartooning phenomenoncan be found inStephen Hess andMilton Kaplan, The Ungentlemanly Art: a History of American Political Cartoons,Macmillan,, 1968, p.124;Dewey, Art of Ill Will, p.124;William Murrell, A History of American Graphic Humor: 1865-1938, Vol. 2,Macmillan,, 1967, p.176. Google Scholar

83.Jim Case, ‘Black Friday’, Worker(), 12February1912. Google Scholar

84.Jim Case, ‘Clear the way, ye Lords and Lackeys’, Worker(), 1January1910. Google Scholar

85.Jim Case, ‘Diverting his Attention’, Worker(), 6February1909. Google Scholar

86.Originally published in theAustralian Worker, it was reprinted as a leaflet with distribution running to one million copies.Vane Lindesay, ‘Australian Cartoonists and World War One’, inAnna Rutherford andJames Wieland(eds), War: Australia’s Creative Response,Dangaroo Press,, 1997, p.84. See alsoVane Lindesay andJohn McLaren, ‘The War Cartoons of Claude Marquet’, inRutherford andWieland, Australia’s Creative Response). Google Scholar

87.Barry York, ‘The Maltese, White Australia, and conscription: ‘Il-Tfal Ta Billy Hughes’, Labour History, no.57, November1989, p.1. Google Scholar

88.Jim Case, ‘History Repeated – A Famous Ancient Ruse’, Worker(), 28September1916. Google Scholar

89.Nick Dyrenfurth, ‘Labor’s fusion legacy’, inDyrenfurth andStrangio(eds), Confusion, pp.293-96, andDyrenfurth, Heroes and Villains, ch. 6. Google Scholar

90.For instance,Will Dyson, ‘Now or Never’, Labor Call, 19October1916. Google Scholar

91.Jim Case, ‘The Sifting’, Worker(), 23November1916. On this topic, seeDyrenfurth andQuartly, ‘All the World Over’, pp.06.31-06.38. Google Scholar

92. Australian Worker, 6November1919. Google Scholar

93.Marquet similarly dispensed with his populist imagery of heroic rural workers after 1918, preferring to depict the ALP as a blue-collar, industrial worker (Claude Marquet, ‘Dignity and Impudence’, Australian Worker, 25September1919) who often engaged global capital in the more universal struggle between classes (Claude Marquet, ‘When They Meet’, Australian Worker, 24April1919). Google Scholar

94.Jim Case, ‘Breaking the Chains’, Worker(), 22August1918. Google Scholar

95.Jim Case, ‘Flicking them off’, Worker(), 10July1919. See alsoJim Case, ‘The Meddler’ Worker(), 10July1919. Google Scholar

96.Jim Case, ‘His Masterpiece’, Worker(), 8July1920. Google Scholar

97.Evans, The Red Flag Riots, ch. 4. Google Scholar

98.Jim Case, ‘Carving the ‘Corpus”, Truth, 26December1920. Google Scholar

99.Jim Case, ‘Onward Christian Soldier’, Truth, 20March1921. Google Scholar

100.Jim Case, ‘Australia “Alarmed”’, Truth, 2January1921. Google Scholar

101.Jim Case, ‘Will They Pull Together?’, Truth, 6March1921. Google Scholar

102. Worker(), 27October1921. Google Scholar

103. Australian Worker, 27October1921. Google Scholar

104.Lindesay, ‘Marquet’, ADB. Google Scholar

105. Australian Worker, 27October1921. Google Scholar

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Dyrenfurth, Nick