International Development Planning Review

‘Water when you need it’: drawing lessons from practices in Hubli-Dharwad, India

International Development Planning Review (2020), 42, (3), 337–356.

Abstract

In this paper, I highlight the nuances of the water delivery process through a critical analysis of local municipal practices in India. Drawing upon insights from planning theory, I take a deeper look at urban water delivery. I show that it is far more complex than is understood and needs to be addressed as such by actively accounting for the complexities associated with rapid growth. Using a case study, I present the potential of various features of the water delivery strategies in practice. The features, when combined and systematically planned as a ‘hybrid approach’, offer a powerful way to meet the water needs in a timely and cost-effective manner that can be sustained over time. I argue that the approach allows planners to go beyond the conventional and often unsuccessful strategies and enables new, workable solutions; the approach thus has positive implications for urban water provision for millions.

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References

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Davis, J. (2005) ‘Private-sector participation in the water and sanitation sector’, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 30(1), 145–83. Google Scholar

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Giddens, A. (1993) New rules of sociological method: a positive critique of interpretative sociologies, 2nd edition, Oxford, Polity. Google Scholar

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Levy, J. (2017) Contemporary urban planning, 11th edition, New York, Routledge. Google Scholar

Martino, G., De Paola, F., Fontana, N., Marini, G. and Ranucci, A. (2011) ‘Pollution reduction in receivers: storm-water tanks’, Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 137(1), 29–38. Google Scholar

McFarlane, C. (2008) ‘Sanitation in Mumbai’s informal settlements: state, “slum”, and infrastructure’, Environment and Planning A, 40(1), 88–107. Google Scholar

Mehta, L. (2016) ‘Why invisible power and structural violence persist in the water domain’, Power, poverty and inequality special issue, IDS Bulletin, 47(5), 31–42. Google Scholar

Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (2013) Data reports on key indicators of drinking water, sanitation, hygiene and housing condition in India 2011–2012. Google Scholar

Mitra, S. (2010) ‘World Bank and urban water supply reforms in India: a case study in Karnataka’ (PhD thesis), Manchester, University of Manchester. Google Scholar

MoUD (Ministry of Urban Development) (2009) ‘Guidance notes for continuous water supply (24-7 supply): a guide to project preparation, implementation, and appraisal’, New Delhi, Government of India. Google Scholar

Nelson, V. (2008) ‘New approaches in decentralized water infrastructure’ (report), Gloucester, MA, Coalition for Alternative Wastewater Treatment. Google Scholar

NSSO (National Sample Survey Office) (2010) ‘Housing condition and amenities in India and key indicators of drinking water, sanitation, hygiene and housing condition in India’ (data and survery reports), 2010, 2012, 2014, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Google Scholar

Parker M., Williams, A. and Youngblood, C. (eds) (2006) ‘Water stories: expanding opportunities in small-scale water and sanitation projects’, Washington, DC, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Google Scholar

Patterson, J., Smith, C. and Bellamy, J. (2013) ‘Understanding enabling capacities for managing the “wicked problem” of nonpoint source water pollution in catchments: a conceptual framework’, Journal of Environmental Management, 128, 441–52. Google Scholar

Planning Commission (2012) ‘Access to water and water sources for households’ (demographic and amenities and drinking water tables), Government of India. Google Scholar

Raju, K. V., Latha, N. and Manasi, S. (2007) ‘Increasing groundwater dependency and declining water quality in urban water supply: a comparative analysis of four South Indian cities’ (Working Paper 184), Bangalore, Institute for Social and Economic Change. Google Scholar

Ramachandra, T. and Aithal, B. (2012) ‘Spatio-temporal dynamics of urbanising landscape in twin cities in Karnataka, India’, International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Mechatronics, 1(5), 87–98. Google Scholar

Ranganathan, M., Kamath, L. and Baindur, V. (2009) ‘Piped water supply to Greater Bangalore: putting the cart before the horse?’, Economic and Political Weekly, 44(33), 53–62. Google Scholar

Reed, P. M. and Kasprzyk, J. (2009) ‘Water resources management: the myth, the wicked, and the future’, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 135(6), 411–13. Google Scholar

Rittel, H. and Webber, M. (1973) ‘Dilemmas in a general theory of planning’, Policy Sciences, 4(2), 155–69. Google Scholar

Ruiz-Mier, F. and van Ginneken, M. (2006) ‘Consumer cooperatives: an alternative institutional model for delivery of urban water supply and sanitation services?’ (Water supply and sanitation working notes no. 5), Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

Shaban, A. (2008) ‘Water poverty in urban India: a study of major cities’ (seminar paper), UGC-Summer Programme, Mumbai, Tata Institute of Social Science. Google Scholar

Suleiman L. and Khakee, A. (2017) ‘Rethinking water reform policies as a “wicked problem”: the case of urban water supply in Ghana’, International Planning Studies, 22(4), 320–32. Google Scholar

Truelove, Y. (2011) ‘(Re-)Conceptualizing water inequality in Delhi, India through a feminist political ecology framework’, Geoforum, 42(2), 143–52. Google Scholar

Wilbur Smith Associates (2003) ‘Environmental assessment of demonstration projects and priority investments in Hubli-Dharwad, Belgaum and Gulbarga’, Karnataka urban water supply and sanitation sector improvement project, Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

World Bank (2011) ‘Implementation completion and results report (IBRD-47300) for the Karnataka Urban Water Sector Improvement Project’ (Report ICR00001950), Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

World Bank (2019) World development indicators, https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/world-development-indicators. Google Scholar

Anand, N. (2017) Hydraulic city: water and the infrastructures of citizenship in Mumbai, Durham, NC, Duke University Press. Google Scholar

Baviskar, A. and Sundar, N. (2008) ‘Democracy versus economic transformation?’, Economic and Political Weekly, 43(46), 87–89. Google Scholar

Bear, L. (2015) Navigating austerity: currents of debt along a South Asian river, Anthropology of policy, Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press. Google Scholar

Bjorkman, L. (2014) ‘Becoming a slum: from municipal colony to illegal settlement in liberalization-era Mumbai’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 38(1), 36–59. Google Scholar

Brook, R., Purushothaman, S. and Hunshal. C. (eds) (2003) Changing frontiers, the peri-urban interface Hubli-Dharwad, India, Bangalore, Books For Change. Google Scholar

Census (2001) Census of India, Government of India, http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-common/CensusDataSummary.html. Google Scholar

Census (2011) Census of India, Government of India, http://www.censusindia.gov.in/pca/Searchdata.aspx. Google Scholar

Census (2012) Census of India, Government of India, http://www.censusindia.gov.in/vital_statistics/SRS_Reports_2012.html. Google Scholar

Chatterjee, P. (2004) Politics of the governed, New York, Columbia University Press. Google Scholar

CPHEEO (Central Public Health and Environment and Engineering Organisation) (1999) Manual on water supply and treatment, Expert Committee, Ministry of Urban Development, New Delhi, Government of India. Google Scholar

Das, P. (2010) ‘Promise or compromise? Community managed water supply for the urban poor in Madhya Pradesh, India’ (PhD thesis), Los Angeles, University of California Los Angeles. Google Scholar

Davis, J. (2005) ‘Private-sector participation in the water and sanitation sector’, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 30(1), 145–83. Google Scholar

Devadiga, A. (2014) ‘“Water when you need it”: examining water service delivery problem with an urban planning perspective’ (unpublished PhD thesis), Berkeley, University of California Berkeley. Google Scholar

Giddens, A. (1993) New rules of sociological method: a positive critique of interpretative sociologies, 2nd edition, Oxford, Polity. Google Scholar

Gleick, P. (2003) ‘Water use’, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 28, 275–314. Google Scholar

GOI (Government of India) (2013) ‘Working group on urban governance’ (report for 12th five year plan), Government of India, http://planningcommission.gov.in/aboutus/committee/wrkgrp12/hud/wg_Urban_Governance_Final_Report.pdf (accessed 12 August 2017). Google Scholar

GOI (Government of India) and ADB (Asian Development Bank) (2007) ‘2007 benchmarking and data book of water utilities in India’, New Delhi, Ministry of Urban Development GOI and ADB. Google Scholar

He, H., Zhou, J., Wu, Y., Yu, Q., Zhang W. and Xiuping X. (2007) ‘Estimating water quality pollution impacts based on economic loss models in urbanization process in Xi’an, China’, Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 133(3), 151–60. Google Scholar

HPEC (2011) ‘Report on Indian urban infrastructure and services’, Report from High Powered Expert Committee (HPEC) for estimating the investment requirements for urban infrastructure services, New Delhi, Government of India. Google Scholar

Jaglin, S. (2002) ‘The right to water versus cost recovery: participation, urban water supply and the poor in sub-Saharan Africa’, Environment & Urbanization, 14(1), 231–45. Google Scholar

Jayaramu, Devadiga, A. and Kumar M. (2015) ‘Connecting the last mile: water access policy in action’, Waterlines, 34(2), 156–73. Google Scholar

Kacker, S. D., Osborne Miller, T. and Ramanujam, S. R. (2014) ‘Running water in India’s cities: a review of five recent public private partnership initiatives’, The World Bank Group, Washington DC. Google Scholar

Karnataka Census (2011) Government of Karnataka, https://www.census2011.co.in/census/state/karnataka.html. Google Scholar

KUWSDB (Karnataka Urban Water Supply and Drainage Board) Executive Engineer (2013) ‘O & M of water supply in Hubli-Dharwad’, presented at the KUWSDB meeting in Bangalore, KUWSDB, Bangalore, 2 August. Google Scholar

Kiparsky, M., Sedlak, D, Thomas, B. and Truffer, B. (2013) ‘The innovation deficit in urban water: the need for an integrated perspective on institutions, organizations, and technology’, Environmental Engineering Science, 30(8), 395–408. Google Scholar

Kooy, M., Furlong, K. and Lamb, V. (2020) ‘Viewpoint: Nature Based Solutions for urban water management in Asian cities: integrating vulnerability into sustainable design’, International Development Planning Review, 42(3), 381–90. Google Scholar

Kumpel, E. and Nelson, K. (2013) ‘Comparing microbial water quality in an intermittent and continuous piped water supply’, Water Research, 47(14), 5176–88. Google Scholar

Lach, D., Rayner, S. and Ingram, H. (2005) ‘Taming the waters: strategies to domesticate the wicked problems of water resource management’, International Journal of Water, 3(1), 1–17. Google Scholar

Lawhon, M., Nilsson, D. and Silver, J. (2018) ‘Thinking through heterogeneous infrastructure configurations’, Urban Studies, 55(4), 720–32. Google Scholar

Levy, J. (2017) Contemporary urban planning, 11th edition, New York, Routledge. Google Scholar

Martino, G., De Paola, F., Fontana, N., Marini, G. and Ranucci, A. (2011) ‘Pollution reduction in receivers: storm-water tanks’, Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 137(1), 29–38. Google Scholar

McFarlane, C. (2008) ‘Sanitation in Mumbai’s informal settlements: state, “slum”, and infrastructure’, Environment and Planning A, 40(1), 88–107. Google Scholar

Mehta, L. (2016) ‘Why invisible power and structural violence persist in the water domain’, Power, poverty and inequality special issue, IDS Bulletin, 47(5), 31–42. Google Scholar

Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (2013) Data reports on key indicators of drinking water, sanitation, hygiene and housing condition in India 2011–2012. Google Scholar

Mitra, S. (2010) ‘World Bank and urban water supply reforms in India: a case study in Karnataka’ (PhD thesis), Manchester, University of Manchester. Google Scholar

MoUD (Ministry of Urban Development) (2009) ‘Guidance notes for continuous water supply (24-7 supply): a guide to project preparation, implementation, and appraisal’, New Delhi, Government of India. Google Scholar

Nelson, V. (2008) ‘New approaches in decentralized water infrastructure’ (report), Gloucester, MA, Coalition for Alternative Wastewater Treatment. Google Scholar

NSSO (National Sample Survey Office) (2010) ‘Housing condition and amenities in India and key indicators of drinking water, sanitation, hygiene and housing condition in India’ (data and survery reports), 2010, 2012, 2014, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Google Scholar

Parker M., Williams, A. and Youngblood, C. (eds) (2006) ‘Water stories: expanding opportunities in small-scale water and sanitation projects’, Washington, DC, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Google Scholar

Patterson, J., Smith, C. and Bellamy, J. (2013) ‘Understanding enabling capacities for managing the “wicked problem” of nonpoint source water pollution in catchments: a conceptual framework’, Journal of Environmental Management, 128, 441–52. Google Scholar

Planning Commission (2012) ‘Access to water and water sources for households’ (demographic and amenities and drinking water tables), Government of India. Google Scholar

Raju, K. V., Latha, N. and Manasi, S. (2007) ‘Increasing groundwater dependency and declining water quality in urban water supply: a comparative analysis of four South Indian cities’ (Working Paper 184), Bangalore, Institute for Social and Economic Change. Google Scholar

Ramachandra, T. and Aithal, B. (2012) ‘Spatio-temporal dynamics of urbanising landscape in twin cities in Karnataka, India’, International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Mechatronics, 1(5), 87–98. Google Scholar

Ranganathan, M., Kamath, L. and Baindur, V. (2009) ‘Piped water supply to Greater Bangalore: putting the cart before the horse?’, Economic and Political Weekly, 44(33), 53–62. Google Scholar

Reed, P. M. and Kasprzyk, J. (2009) ‘Water resources management: the myth, the wicked, and the future’, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 135(6), 411–13. Google Scholar

Rittel, H. and Webber, M. (1973) ‘Dilemmas in a general theory of planning’, Policy Sciences, 4(2), 155–69. Google Scholar

Ruiz-Mier, F. and van Ginneken, M. (2006) ‘Consumer cooperatives: an alternative institutional model for delivery of urban water supply and sanitation services?’ (Water supply and sanitation working notes no. 5), Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

Shaban, A. (2008) ‘Water poverty in urban India: a study of major cities’ (seminar paper), UGC-Summer Programme, Mumbai, Tata Institute of Social Science. Google Scholar

Suleiman L. and Khakee, A. (2017) ‘Rethinking water reform policies as a “wicked problem”: the case of urban water supply in Ghana’, International Planning Studies, 22(4), 320–32. Google Scholar

Truelove, Y. (2011) ‘(Re-)Conceptualizing water inequality in Delhi, India through a feminist political ecology framework’, Geoforum, 42(2), 143–52. Google Scholar

Wilbur Smith Associates (2003) ‘Environmental assessment of demonstration projects and priority investments in Hubli-Dharwad, Belgaum and Gulbarga’, Karnataka urban water supply and sanitation sector improvement project, Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

World Bank (2011) ‘Implementation completion and results report (IBRD-47300) for the Karnataka Urban Water Sector Improvement Project’ (Report ICR00001950), Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

World Bank (2019) World development indicators, https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/world-development-indicators. Google Scholar

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Author details

Devadiga, Asavari