Town Planning Review

The business of densification: distribution of power, wealth and inequality in Swiss policy making

Town Planning Review (2020), 91, (3), 259–281.

Abstract

In Switzerland, the fight against uncontrolled urban sprawl and the protection of agricultural land have a long tradition. To reconcile these concerns, the Swiss voting majority agreed to introduce densification as a legally binding policy objective in 2013. Simultaneously, however, densification processes have started to threaten the housing situation of low- and middle-income tenants due to higher rents following redevelopment. In this article, we argue that the Swiss way of implementing densification is characterised by a systematic bypassing of tenants’ needs for social sustainability in housing due to the current political priorities of the Swiss federal government. Using an institutionalist analysis approach and a qualitative case-study methodology, we analyse the institutional mechanisms and the actors’ rationale behind this emerging business of densification. Finally, we discuss the role of the nation state in the provision of the ‘right to housing’ for all income segments and its consequences for the country’s long-term sustainability performance.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

References

ALTERMAN, R. (2010), Takings International: A Comparative Perspective on Land Use Regulations and Compensation Rights, Chicago, ABA Publications. Google Scholar

BALMER, I. and GERBER, J.-D. (2017), ‘Why are housing cooperatives successful? Insights from Swiss affordable housing policy’, Housing Studies, 33, 361–85. Google Scholar

BATHELT, H. and GLüCKLER, J. (2005), ‘Resources in economic geography: from substantive concepts towards a relational perspective’, Environment and Planning A, 37, 1545–63. Google Scholar

BIBBY, P., HENNEBERRY, J. and HALLEUX, J.-M. (2018), ‘Under the radar? “Soft” residential densification in England, 2001–2011’, Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, DOI: 10.1177/2399808318772842. Google Scholar

BLOMQUIST, W. (2012), ‘A political analysis of property rights’, in D. Cole and E. Ostrom (eds), Property in Land and Other Resources, Cambridge, MA, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 369–84. Google Scholar

BOURASSA, S., HOESLI, C. and SCOGNAMIGLIO, D. (2010), ‘Housing finance, prices, and tenure in Switzerland’, Journal of Real Estate Literature, 18, 262–82. Google Scholar

BRAMLEY, G., DEMPSEY, N., POWER, S., BROWN, C. and WATKINS, D. (2009), ‘Social sustainability and urban form: evidence from five British cities’, Environment and Planning A, 41, 2125–42. Google Scholar

BRENNER, N., MARCUSE, P. and MAYER, M. (2012), Cities for People, Not for Profit: Critical Urban Theory and the Right to the City, Abingdon, Routledge. Google Scholar

BROITMAN, D. and KOOMEN, E. (2015), ‘Residential density change: densification and urban expansion’, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 54, 32–46. Google Scholar

BROMLEY, D. W. (1992), ‘The commons, common property, and environmental policy’, Environmental and Resource Economics, 2, 1–17. Google Scholar

BUITELAAR, E. and NEEDHAM, B. (2007), ‘Property rights and private initiatives: an introduction exploring alternatives to customary land use planning’, Town Planning Review, 78, 1–8. Google Scholar

BURRI, S. (2015), ‘Genossenschaftswohnungen: Grosser Run, kleine Chancen’, Swiss Radio and Television, https://www.srf.ch/news/schweiz/genossenschaftswohnungen-grosser-run-kleine-chancen (accessed 22 July 2019). Google Scholar

CHIU, R. L. H. (2003), ‘Social sustainability, sustainable development and housing development: the experience of Hong Kong’, in R. Forrest and J. Lee (eds), Housing and Social Change: East–West Perspectives, London, Routledge, 221–39. Google Scholar

COSD (CANTONAL OFFICE FOR SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT) and CSO (CANTONAL STATISTICAL OFFICE) ZURICH (2014), Akzeptanz der Dichte, Zurich. Google Scholar

DAVIDSON, M. (2010), ‘Social sustainability and the city’, Geography Compass, 4, 872–80. Google Scholar

DAVY, B. (2005), ‘Grundstückswerte, Stadtumbau und Bodenpolitik’, vhw Forum Wohneigentum, 2, 67–72. Google Scholar

DAVY, B. (2012), Land Policy: Planning and the Spatial Consequences of Property, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

DEMBSKI, S. and SALET, W. (2010), ‘The transformative potential of institutions: how symbolic markers can institute new social meaning in changing cities’, Environment and Planning A, 42, 611–25. Google Scholar

DEMPSEY, N. (2010), ‘Revisiting the compact city?’, Built Environment, 36, 5–8. Google Scholar

DEMPSEY, N., BRAMLEY, G., POWER, S. and BROWN, C. (2009), ‘The social dimension of sustainable development: defining urban social sustainability’, Sustainable Development, 19, 289–300. Google Scholar

DEMSETZ, H. (1967), ‘Toward a theory of property rights’, American Economic Review, 57, 347–59. Google Scholar

FDF (FEDERAL DEPARMENT OF FINANCE), FOE (FEDERAL OFFICE OF ENERGY) and FOH (FEDERAL OFFICE FOR HOUSING) (2009), Steuerliche Anreize für energetische Sanierungen von Gebäuden Studie der interdepartementalen Arbeitsgruppe, Bern. Google Scholar

FEDERAL TAX ADMINISTRATION (2017), Umsetzung der steuerlichen Massnahmen im Gebäudebereich geht in die Vernehmlassung, Bern. Google Scholar

FLURI, K. (2017), Postulat 16.4028 Schweizer Ortsbilder erhalten, Bern. Google Scholar

FOC (FEDERAL OFFICE OF CULTURE) (2018), Schweizer Ortsbilder erhalten Bericht des Bundesrates in Erfüllung des Postulates, Bern. Google Scholar

FOE (FEDERAL OFFICE OF ENERGY) (2018), Das Gebäudeprogramm, Bern. Google Scholar

FOE AND FOH (FEDERAL OFFICE OF ENERGY AND FOR HOUSING) (2015), Energetische Sanierung: Auswirkungen auf Mietzinsen, Bern. Google Scholar

FOH (FEDERAL OFFICE FOR HOUSING) (2012), Preisgünstiger Wohnraum mittels raumplanerischer Massnahmen? Wirkungsanalyse und Handlungsempfehlungen, Bern. Google Scholar

FOH (FEDERAL OFFICE FOR HOUSING) (2014a), Bericht über die Ergebnisse der Vernehmlassung zur Änderung des Mietrechts im Obligationenrecht (OR), Bern. Google Scholar

FOH (FEDERAL OFFICE FOR HOUSING) (2014b), Vorkaufsrecht der Gemeinden: Bericht zuhanden des Bundesrates Zusammenfassung Ausgangslage, Bern. Google Scholar

FOH (FEDERAL OFFICE FOR HOUSING) (2014c), Wohnungspolitischer Dialog Bund, Kantone und Städte Zwischenbericht der Arbeitsgruppe, Bern. Google Scholar

FOH (FEDERAL OFFICE FOR HOUSING) (2016a), Bericht Energetische Gebäudesanierungen im Mietwohnungsbereich, Bern. Google Scholar

FOH (FEDERAL OFFICE FOR HOUSING) (2016b), Wohnungspolitischer Dialog Bund, Kantone und Städte Zwischenbericht der Arbeitsgruppe, Bern. Google Scholar

FOH (FEDERAL OFFICE FOR HOUSING) (2017), Gemeinnütziges Wohnen im Fokus: Ein Vergleich zu Miete und Eigentum, Grenchen. Google Scholar

FOSD (FEDERAL OFFICE FOR SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT) (2016), ISOS und Verdichtung: Bericht der Arbeitsgruppe, Bern. Google Scholar

FOSI AND FOH (FEDERAL OFFICE FOR SOCIAL INSURANCES AND HOUSING) (2015), Wohnungsversorgung in der Schweiz: Bestandesaufnahme über Haushalte von Menschen in Armut und prekären Lebenslagen, Bern. Google Scholar

FSO (FEDERAL STATISTICAL OFFICE) (2015), Bevölkerunsstand- und Struktur, Neuchatel. Google Scholar

GENNAIO, M. P., HERSPERGER, A. M. and BÜRGI, M. (2009), ‘Containing urban sprawl: evaluating effectiveness of urban growth boundaries set by the Swiss Land Use Plan’, Land Use Policy, 26, 224–32. Google Scholar

GERBER, J.-D., KNOEPFEL, P., NAHRATH, S. and VARONE, F. (2009), ‘Institutional resource regimes: towards sustainability through the combination of property-rights theory and policy analysis’, Ecological Economics, 68, 798–809. Google Scholar

GERBER, J.-D., NAHRATH, S. and HARTMANN, T. (2017), ‘The strategic use of time-limited property rights in land-use planning: evidence from Switzerland’, Environment and Planning A, 49, 1684–703. Google Scholar

GFOBRP (GERMAN FEDERAL INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH ON BUILDING, URBAN AFFAIRS AND SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT) (2016), Mietrecht und energetische Sanierung im europäischen Vergleich, Bonn. Google Scholar

HALL, P. and TAYLOR, R. (1996), ‘Political science and the three new institutionalisms’, Political Studies, 44, 936–57. Google Scholar

HARDEGGER, T. (2017), Förderung des gemeinnützigen oder preisgünstigen Wohnungsbaus: Vorkaufsrecht für Gemeinden, Bern, Bundeshaus. Google Scholar

HARDIN, G. (1968), ‘The tragedy of the commons’, Science, 162, 1243–48. Google Scholar

HARDIN, G. (1991), ‘The tragedy of the unmanaged commons: population and the disguises of providence’, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 9, 162–85. Google Scholar

HARLOE, M. (1995), The People’s Home: Social Rented Housing in Europe and America, Oxford, Blackwell. Google Scholar

HARTMANN, T. and GERBER, J.-D. (2018), ‘Land, scarcity, and property rights’, in J.-D. Gerber, T. Hartmann and A. Hengstermann (eds), Instruments of Land Policy, London, Routledge, 3–7. Google Scholar

HARVEY, D. (2012), Rebel Cities: From the Right to the City to the Urban Revolution, New York, Verso. Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2007), ‘The new institutionalism and the transformative goals of planning’, in N. Verma (ed.), Institutions and Planning, Amsterdam, Elsevier, 61–87. Google Scholar

HEEG, S. (2013), ‘Wohnungen als Finanzanlage: Auswirkungen von Responsibilisierung und Finanzialisierung im Bereich des Wohnens’, Zeitschrift sub/urban, 1, 75–99. Google Scholar

HOLMAN, N., MACE, A., PACCOUD, A. and SUNDARESAN, J. (2015), ‘Coordinating density: working through conviction, suspicion and pragmatism’, Progress in Planning, 101, 1–38. Google Scholar

HOOD, C. (1983), The Tools of Government, London, Macmillan Education. Google Scholar

IFHP (INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION FOR HOUSING AND PLANNING) (2019), The Social Cities Index: A Tool for Urban Leaders, Copenhagen, IFHP. Google Scholar

JESSOP, B. (2001), ‘Institutional re(turns) and the strategic-relational approach’, Environment and Planning A, 33, 1213–35. Google Scholar

KÉBIR, L. (2010), ‘Pour une approche institutionnelle et territoriale des ressources’, in M. Maillefert, O. Petit and S. Rousseau (eds), Ressources, patrimoine, territoires et développement durable, Brussels, Peter Lang, 69–86. Google Scholar

KNOEPFEL, P. (1986), ‘Distributional issues in regulatory policy implementation: the case of air quality control policies’, in A. Schnaiberg, N. Watts and K. Zimmermann (eds), Distributional Conflicts in Environmental Policy, Aldershot, Gower, 363–79. Google Scholar

KNOEPFEL, P., LARRUE, C., HILL, M. and VARONE, F. (2011), Public Policy Analysis, Bristol, Policy Press. Google Scholar

KNOEPFEL, P., NAHRATH, S. and VARONE, F. (2007), ‘Environmental policy analyses: learning from the past for the future. 25 years of research’, in P. Knoepfel (ed.), Institutional Regimes for Natural Resources: An Innovative Theoretical Framework for Sustainability, Berlin, Springer, 455–506. Google Scholar

LAWSON, J. (2009), ‘The transformation of social housing provision in Switzerland mediated by federalism, direct democracy and the urban/rural divide’, European Journal of Housing Policy, 9, 45–67. Google Scholar

LEES, L., SLATER, T. and WYLY, E. (2008), Gentrification, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

LINDER, W. (1994), Swiss Democracy: Possible Solutions to Conflict in Multicultural Societies, New York, St Martin’s Press. Google Scholar

LITTIG, B. and GRIESSLER, E. (2005), ‘Social sustainability: a catchword between political pragmatism and social theory’, International Journal Sustainable Development, 8, 65–79. Google Scholar

LOCKE, J. (1689 [1977]), ‘Labor theory of ownership’, in J. Locke, Second Treatise of Government, Sect. 27, Walter Euchner, Franfurt am Main. Google Scholar

MCKENZIE, S. (2004), Social Sustainability: Towards Some Definitions, Hawke Research Institute, University of South Australia, Adelaide. Google Scholar

MAISSEN, F. (2018), ‘Massenkündigungen von Mietwohnungen nehmen zu’, in Swiss Radio and Television, 2018, https://www.srf.ch/news/schweiz/rendite-um-jeden-preis-massenkuendigungen-von-mietwohnungen-nehmen-zu (accessed 22 July 2019). Google Scholar

MANDELBAUM, S. J. (1985), ‘The institutional focus of planning theory’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 5, 3–9. Google Scholar

MARCUSE, P. (2012), ‘A critical approach to solving the housing problem’, in Brenner et al. (eds), 215–30. Google Scholar

MARX, K. (1868), Über die Nationalisierung des Grund und Bodens, Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels Werke, Karl Dietz Verlag, Berlin. Google Scholar

MULLINER, E., SMALLBONE, K. and MALIENE, V. (2013), ‘An assessment of sustainable housing affordability using a multiple criteria decision making method’, Omega, 41, 270–79. Google Scholar

NEBEL, R., HOLLENSTEIN, K., DI CARLO, G., NIEDERMAIER, M. and SCHOLL, B. (2017), Schweizweite Abschätzung der Nutzungsreserven 2017, Zurich, ETH University. Google Scholar

NORTH, D. (1994), ‘Economic performance through time’, American Economic Review, 84, 359–68. Google Scholar

OSTROM, E. (1990), Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, Indiana, Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

OSTROM, E. (2009), ‘A general framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems’, Science, 325, 419–22. Google Scholar

POLESE, M. and STREN, R. (2000), The Social Sustainability of Cities: Diversity and the Management of Change, Toronto, University of Toronto Press. Google Scholar

RAWLS, J. (2005 [1971]), A Theory of Justice, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Google Scholar

RÉRAT, P. (2012), ‘The new demographic growth of cities: the case of reurbanisation in Switzerland’, Urban Studies, 49, 1107–25. Google Scholar

ROLNIK, R. (2013), ‘Late neoliberalism: the financialization of homeownership and housing rights’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 37, 1058–66. Google Scholar

ROUSSEAU, J.-J. (1963 [1762]), Du contrat social ou principes du droit politique, reprint, Übersetzt aus dem Framzösischen von H. Denhardt, Leipzig. Google Scholar

SLAEV, A. (2016), ‘Types of planning and property rights’, Planning Theory, 15, 23–41. Google Scholar

SWISS FEDERAL COUNCIL (2014), Botschaft zu einem Rahmenkredit für Eventualverpflichtungen in der Wohnraumförderung für die Jahre 2015–2021 vom 20. August 2014, Bern. Google Scholar

SWISS FEDERAL COUNCIL (2016), 15.044 Geschäft des Bundesrates zur Änderung des OR. Mietrecht, Bern. Google Scholar

SWISS FEDERAL COUNCIL (2017), Verdichtetes Bauen in Ortszentren fördern, aber wie? Bericht des Bundesrates in Erfüllung des Postulats von Graffenried 14.3806 vom 24. September 2014, Bern. Google Scholar

SWISS FEDERAL COUNCIL (2018), Schweizer Ortsbilder erhalten Bericht des Bundesrates in Erfüllung des Postulates, Bern. Google Scholar

THEURILLAT, T., RÉRAT, P. and CREVOISIER, O. (2014), ‘The real estate markets: Players, institutions and territories’, Urban Studies, 52, 1414–33. Google Scholar

VALLANCE, S., PERKINS, H. C. and DIXON, J. E. (2011), ‘What is social sustainability? A clarification of concepts’, Geoforum, 42, 342–48. Google Scholar

VON GRAFFENRIED, A. (2014), 14.3806 Verdichtetes Bauen in Ortszentren fördern, aber wie?, Bern. Google Scholar

VONMONT, A. (2016), Sanieren mit dem Blick fürs Ganze, Bern. Google Scholar

WEHRMÜLLER, A. (2014), TENLAW: Tenancy Law and Housing Policy in Multi-level Europe, National Report for Switzerland, European Union. Google Scholar

WEINGAERTNER, C. and MOBERG, Å. (2014), ‘Exploring social sustainability: learning from perspectives on urban development and companies and products’, Sustainable Development, 22, 122–33. Google Scholar

WILLIAMS, K., BURTON, E. and JENKS, M. (2000), Achieving Sustainable Urban Form, London, Spon Press. Google Scholar

WILLIAMSON, O. E. (2000), ‘The new institutional economics: taking stock, looking ahead’, Journal of Economic Literature, 38, 595–613. Google Scholar

WOODCRAFT, S. (2012), ‘Social sustainability and new communities: moving from concept to practice in the UK’, Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 68, 29–42. Google Scholar

YIN, R. (2018), Case Study Research and Applications. Design and Methods, California, Sage. Google Scholar

ALTERMAN, R. (2010), Takings International: A Comparative Perspective on Land Use Regulations and Compensation Rights, Chicago, ABA Publications. Google Scholar

BALMER, I. and GERBER, J.-D. (2017), ‘Why are housing cooperatives successful? Insights from Swiss affordable housing policy’, Housing Studies, 33, 361–85. Google Scholar

BATHELT, H. and GLüCKLER, J. (2005), ‘Resources in economic geography: from substantive concepts towards a relational perspective’, Environment and Planning A, 37, 1545–63. Google Scholar

BIBBY, P., HENNEBERRY, J. and HALLEUX, J.-M. (2018), ‘Under the radar? “Soft” residential densification in England, 2001–2011’, Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, DOI: 10.1177/2399808318772842. Google Scholar

BLOMQUIST, W. (2012), ‘A political analysis of property rights’, in D. Cole and E. Ostrom (eds), Property in Land and Other Resources, Cambridge, MA, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 369–84. Google Scholar

BOURASSA, S., HOESLI, C. and SCOGNAMIGLIO, D. (2010), ‘Housing finance, prices, and tenure in Switzerland’, Journal of Real Estate Literature, 18, 262–82. Google Scholar

BRAMLEY, G., DEMPSEY, N., POWER, S., BROWN, C. and WATKINS, D. (2009), ‘Social sustainability and urban form: evidence from five British cities’, Environment and Planning A, 41, 2125–42. Google Scholar

BRENNER, N., MARCUSE, P. and MAYER, M. (2012), Cities for People, Not for Profit: Critical Urban Theory and the Right to the City, Abingdon, Routledge. Google Scholar

BROITMAN, D. and KOOMEN, E. (2015), ‘Residential density change: densification and urban expansion’, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 54, 32–46. Google Scholar

BROMLEY, D. W. (1992), ‘The commons, common property, and environmental policy’, Environmental and Resource Economics, 2, 1–17. Google Scholar

BUITELAAR, E. and NEEDHAM, B. (2007), ‘Property rights and private initiatives: an introduction exploring alternatives to customary land use planning’, Town Planning Review, 78, 1–8. Google Scholar

BURRI, S. (2015), ‘Genossenschaftswohnungen: Grosser Run, kleine Chancen’, Swiss Radio and Television, https://www.srf.ch/news/schweiz/genossenschaftswohnungen-grosser-run-kleine-chancen (accessed 22 July 2019). Google Scholar

CHIU, R. L. H. (2003), ‘Social sustainability, sustainable development and housing development: the experience of Hong Kong’, in R. Forrest and J. Lee (eds), Housing and Social Change: East–West Perspectives, London, Routledge, 221–39. Google Scholar

COSD (CANTONAL OFFICE FOR SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT) and CSO (CANTONAL STATISTICAL OFFICE) ZURICH (2014), Akzeptanz der Dichte, Zurich. Google Scholar

DAVIDSON, M. (2010), ‘Social sustainability and the city’, Geography Compass, 4, 872–80. Google Scholar

DAVY, B. (2005), ‘Grundstückswerte, Stadtumbau und Bodenpolitik’, vhw Forum Wohneigentum, 2, 67–72. Google Scholar

DAVY, B. (2012), Land Policy: Planning and the Spatial Consequences of Property, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

DEMBSKI, S. and SALET, W. (2010), ‘The transformative potential of institutions: how symbolic markers can institute new social meaning in changing cities’, Environment and Planning A, 42, 611–25. Google Scholar

DEMPSEY, N. (2010), ‘Revisiting the compact city?’, Built Environment, 36, 5–8. Google Scholar

DEMPSEY, N., BRAMLEY, G., POWER, S. and BROWN, C. (2009), ‘The social dimension of sustainable development: defining urban social sustainability’, Sustainable Development, 19, 289–300. Google Scholar

DEMSETZ, H. (1967), ‘Toward a theory of property rights’, American Economic Review, 57, 347–59. Google Scholar

FDF (FEDERAL DEPARMENT OF FINANCE), FOE (FEDERAL OFFICE OF ENERGY) and FOH (FEDERAL OFFICE FOR HOUSING) (2009), Steuerliche Anreize für energetische Sanierungen von Gebäuden Studie der interdepartementalen Arbeitsgruppe, Bern. Google Scholar

FEDERAL TAX ADMINISTRATION (2017), Umsetzung der steuerlichen Massnahmen im Gebäudebereich geht in die Vernehmlassung, Bern. Google Scholar

FLURI, K. (2017), Postulat 16.4028 Schweizer Ortsbilder erhalten, Bern. Google Scholar

FOC (FEDERAL OFFICE OF CULTURE) (2018), Schweizer Ortsbilder erhalten Bericht des Bundesrates in Erfüllung des Postulates, Bern. Google Scholar

FOE (FEDERAL OFFICE OF ENERGY) (2018), Das Gebäudeprogramm, Bern. Google Scholar

FOE AND FOH (FEDERAL OFFICE OF ENERGY AND FOR HOUSING) (2015), Energetische Sanierung: Auswirkungen auf Mietzinsen, Bern. Google Scholar

FOH (FEDERAL OFFICE FOR HOUSING) (2012), Preisgünstiger Wohnraum mittels raumplanerischer Massnahmen? Wirkungsanalyse und Handlungsempfehlungen, Bern. Google Scholar

FOH (FEDERAL OFFICE FOR HOUSING) (2014a), Bericht über die Ergebnisse der Vernehmlassung zur Änderung des Mietrechts im Obligationenrecht (OR), Bern. Google Scholar

FOH (FEDERAL OFFICE FOR HOUSING) (2014b), Vorkaufsrecht der Gemeinden: Bericht zuhanden des Bundesrates Zusammenfassung Ausgangslage, Bern. Google Scholar

FOH (FEDERAL OFFICE FOR HOUSING) (2014c), Wohnungspolitischer Dialog Bund, Kantone und Städte Zwischenbericht der Arbeitsgruppe, Bern. Google Scholar

FOH (FEDERAL OFFICE FOR HOUSING) (2016a), Bericht Energetische Gebäudesanierungen im Mietwohnungsbereich, Bern. Google Scholar

FOH (FEDERAL OFFICE FOR HOUSING) (2016b), Wohnungspolitischer Dialog Bund, Kantone und Städte Zwischenbericht der Arbeitsgruppe, Bern. Google Scholar

FOH (FEDERAL OFFICE FOR HOUSING) (2017), Gemeinnütziges Wohnen im Fokus: Ein Vergleich zu Miete und Eigentum, Grenchen. Google Scholar

FOSD (FEDERAL OFFICE FOR SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT) (2016), ISOS und Verdichtung: Bericht der Arbeitsgruppe, Bern. Google Scholar

FOSI AND FOH (FEDERAL OFFICE FOR SOCIAL INSURANCES AND HOUSING) (2015), Wohnungsversorgung in der Schweiz: Bestandesaufnahme über Haushalte von Menschen in Armut und prekären Lebenslagen, Bern. Google Scholar

FSO (FEDERAL STATISTICAL OFFICE) (2015), Bevölkerunsstand- und Struktur, Neuchatel. Google Scholar

GENNAIO, M. P., HERSPERGER, A. M. and BÜRGI, M. (2009), ‘Containing urban sprawl: evaluating effectiveness of urban growth boundaries set by the Swiss Land Use Plan’, Land Use Policy, 26, 224–32. Google Scholar

GERBER, J.-D., KNOEPFEL, P., NAHRATH, S. and VARONE, F. (2009), ‘Institutional resource regimes: towards sustainability through the combination of property-rights theory and policy analysis’, Ecological Economics, 68, 798–809. Google Scholar

GERBER, J.-D., NAHRATH, S. and HARTMANN, T. (2017), ‘The strategic use of time-limited property rights in land-use planning: evidence from Switzerland’, Environment and Planning A, 49, 1684–703. Google Scholar

GFOBRP (GERMAN FEDERAL INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH ON BUILDING, URBAN AFFAIRS AND SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT) (2016), Mietrecht und energetische Sanierung im europäischen Vergleich, Bonn. Google Scholar

HALL, P. and TAYLOR, R. (1996), ‘Political science and the three new institutionalisms’, Political Studies, 44, 936–57. Google Scholar

HARDEGGER, T. (2017), Förderung des gemeinnützigen oder preisgünstigen Wohnungsbaus: Vorkaufsrecht für Gemeinden, Bern, Bundeshaus. Google Scholar

HARDIN, G. (1968), ‘The tragedy of the commons’, Science, 162, 1243–48. Google Scholar

HARDIN, G. (1991), ‘The tragedy of the unmanaged commons: population and the disguises of providence’, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 9, 162–85. Google Scholar

HARLOE, M. (1995), The People’s Home: Social Rented Housing in Europe and America, Oxford, Blackwell. Google Scholar

HARTMANN, T. and GERBER, J.-D. (2018), ‘Land, scarcity, and property rights’, in J.-D. Gerber, T. Hartmann and A. Hengstermann (eds), Instruments of Land Policy, London, Routledge, 3–7. Google Scholar

HARVEY, D. (2012), Rebel Cities: From the Right to the City to the Urban Revolution, New York, Verso. Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2007), ‘The new institutionalism and the transformative goals of planning’, in N. Verma (ed.), Institutions and Planning, Amsterdam, Elsevier, 61–87. Google Scholar

HEEG, S. (2013), ‘Wohnungen als Finanzanlage: Auswirkungen von Responsibilisierung und Finanzialisierung im Bereich des Wohnens’, Zeitschrift sub/urban, 1, 75–99. Google Scholar

HOLMAN, N., MACE, A., PACCOUD, A. and SUNDARESAN, J. (2015), ‘Coordinating density: working through conviction, suspicion and pragmatism’, Progress in Planning, 101, 1–38. Google Scholar

HOOD, C. (1983), The Tools of Government, London, Macmillan Education. Google Scholar

IFHP (INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION FOR HOUSING AND PLANNING) (2019), The Social Cities Index: A Tool for Urban Leaders, Copenhagen, IFHP. Google Scholar

JESSOP, B. (2001), ‘Institutional re(turns) and the strategic-relational approach’, Environment and Planning A, 33, 1213–35. Google Scholar

KÉBIR, L. (2010), ‘Pour une approche institutionnelle et territoriale des ressources’, in M. Maillefert, O. Petit and S. Rousseau (eds), Ressources, patrimoine, territoires et développement durable, Brussels, Peter Lang, 69–86. Google Scholar

KNOEPFEL, P. (1986), ‘Distributional issues in regulatory policy implementation: the case of air quality control policies’, in A. Schnaiberg, N. Watts and K. Zimmermann (eds), Distributional Conflicts in Environmental Policy, Aldershot, Gower, 363–79. Google Scholar

KNOEPFEL, P., LARRUE, C., HILL, M. and VARONE, F. (2011), Public Policy Analysis, Bristol, Policy Press. Google Scholar

KNOEPFEL, P., NAHRATH, S. and VARONE, F. (2007), ‘Environmental policy analyses: learning from the past for the future. 25 years of research’, in P. Knoepfel (ed.), Institutional Regimes for Natural Resources: An Innovative Theoretical Framework for Sustainability, Berlin, Springer, 455–506. Google Scholar

LAWSON, J. (2009), ‘The transformation of social housing provision in Switzerland mediated by federalism, direct democracy and the urban/rural divide’, European Journal of Housing Policy, 9, 45–67. Google Scholar

LEES, L., SLATER, T. and WYLY, E. (2008), Gentrification, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

LINDER, W. (1994), Swiss Democracy: Possible Solutions to Conflict in Multicultural Societies, New York, St Martin’s Press. Google Scholar

LITTIG, B. and GRIESSLER, E. (2005), ‘Social sustainability: a catchword between political pragmatism and social theory’, International Journal Sustainable Development, 8, 65–79. Google Scholar

LOCKE, J. (1689 [1977]), ‘Labor theory of ownership’, in J. Locke, Second Treatise of Government, Sect. 27, Walter Euchner, Franfurt am Main. Google Scholar

MCKENZIE, S. (2004), Social Sustainability: Towards Some Definitions, Hawke Research Institute, University of South Australia, Adelaide. Google Scholar

MAISSEN, F. (2018), ‘Massenkündigungen von Mietwohnungen nehmen zu’, in Swiss Radio and Television, 2018, https://www.srf.ch/news/schweiz/rendite-um-jeden-preis-massenkuendigungen-von-mietwohnungen-nehmen-zu (accessed 22 July 2019). Google Scholar

MANDELBAUM, S. J. (1985), ‘The institutional focus of planning theory’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 5, 3–9. Google Scholar

MARCUSE, P. (2012), ‘A critical approach to solving the housing problem’, in Brenner et al. (eds), 215–30. Google Scholar

MARX, K. (1868), Über die Nationalisierung des Grund und Bodens, Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels Werke, Karl Dietz Verlag, Berlin. Google Scholar

MULLINER, E., SMALLBONE, K. and MALIENE, V. (2013), ‘An assessment of sustainable housing affordability using a multiple criteria decision making method’, Omega, 41, 270–79. Google Scholar

NEBEL, R., HOLLENSTEIN, K., DI CARLO, G., NIEDERMAIER, M. and SCHOLL, B. (2017), Schweizweite Abschätzung der Nutzungsreserven 2017, Zurich, ETH University. Google Scholar

NORTH, D. (1994), ‘Economic performance through time’, American Economic Review, 84, 359–68. Google Scholar

OSTROM, E. (1990), Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, Indiana, Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

OSTROM, E. (2009), ‘A general framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems’, Science, 325, 419–22. Google Scholar

POLESE, M. and STREN, R. (2000), The Social Sustainability of Cities: Diversity and the Management of Change, Toronto, University of Toronto Press. Google Scholar

RAWLS, J. (2005 [1971]), A Theory of Justice, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Google Scholar

RÉRAT, P. (2012), ‘The new demographic growth of cities: the case of reurbanisation in Switzerland’, Urban Studies, 49, 1107–25. Google Scholar

ROLNIK, R. (2013), ‘Late neoliberalism: the financialization of homeownership and housing rights’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 37, 1058–66. Google Scholar

ROUSSEAU, J.-J. (1963 [1762]), Du contrat social ou principes du droit politique, reprint, Übersetzt aus dem Framzösischen von H. Denhardt, Leipzig. Google Scholar

SLAEV, A. (2016), ‘Types of planning and property rights’, Planning Theory, 15, 23–41. Google Scholar

SWISS FEDERAL COUNCIL (2014), Botschaft zu einem Rahmenkredit für Eventualverpflichtungen in der Wohnraumförderung für die Jahre 2015–2021 vom 20. August 2014, Bern. Google Scholar

SWISS FEDERAL COUNCIL (2016), 15.044 Geschäft des Bundesrates zur Änderung des OR. Mietrecht, Bern. Google Scholar

SWISS FEDERAL COUNCIL (2017), Verdichtetes Bauen in Ortszentren fördern, aber wie? Bericht des Bundesrates in Erfüllung des Postulats von Graffenried 14.3806 vom 24. September 2014, Bern. Google Scholar

SWISS FEDERAL COUNCIL (2018), Schweizer Ortsbilder erhalten Bericht des Bundesrates in Erfüllung des Postulates, Bern. Google Scholar

THEURILLAT, T., RÉRAT, P. and CREVOISIER, O. (2014), ‘The real estate markets: Players, institutions and territories’, Urban Studies, 52, 1414–33. Google Scholar

VALLANCE, S., PERKINS, H. C. and DIXON, J. E. (2011), ‘What is social sustainability? A clarification of concepts’, Geoforum, 42, 342–48. Google Scholar

VON GRAFFENRIED, A. (2014), 14.3806 Verdichtetes Bauen in Ortszentren fördern, aber wie?, Bern. Google Scholar

VONMONT, A. (2016), Sanieren mit dem Blick fürs Ganze, Bern. Google Scholar

WEHRMÜLLER, A. (2014), TENLAW: Tenancy Law and Housing Policy in Multi-level Europe, National Report for Switzerland, European Union. Google Scholar

WEINGAERTNER, C. and MOBERG, Å. (2014), ‘Exploring social sustainability: learning from perspectives on urban development and companies and products’, Sustainable Development, 22, 122–33. Google Scholar

WILLIAMS, K., BURTON, E. and JENKS, M. (2000), Achieving Sustainable Urban Form, London, Spon Press. Google Scholar

WILLIAMSON, O. E. (2000), ‘The new institutional economics: taking stock, looking ahead’, Journal of Economic Literature, 38, 595–613. Google Scholar

WOODCRAFT, S. (2012), ‘Social sustainability and new communities: moving from concept to practice in the UK’, Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 68, 29–42. Google Scholar

YIN, R. (2018), Case Study Research and Applications. Design and Methods, California, Sage. Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Debrunner, Gabriela

Hengstermann, Andreas

Gerber, Jean-David