Quebec Studies

Quebec, Francophonie, and Globalization

Quebec Studies (2001), 32, (1), 15–35.

Abstract

15 Quebec, Francophonie, and Globalization Jody Neathery-Castro and Mark 0. Rousseau University of Nebraska at Omaha Quebec has somewhat contradictory interests in participating both in a global economy and in protecting its particular cultural heritage. Uniquely, the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie serves both of these inter­ ests, by embracing trade, particularly between developed and developing countries, while demanding pluralism in both trade rules and in the lan­ guage of exchange. International Francophonie, particularly its organizational form in the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), plays an increasingly important role both in defense of French culture and language, and in ad­ vancing French-speaking nations' political and economic interests. The OIF emerged in direct response to these concerns and continues to be shaped by its responses to them. The OIF is one of the few international organizations to include both wealthy first world and impoverished third world nations among its membership. Led by its more wealthy and powerful members, the OIF has become an increasingly vocal player on the world stage in defense of francophone interests. In particular, it performs a world-leading role in articulating economic policies based on differing assumptions from those of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This is seen most forcefully in OIF's strong stance in favor of cultural exceptions in global trade regulations. Quebec is a member state and plays a major role in the OIF. As the Quebec government states, L'appartenance du Québec à la Francophonie est une nécessité vitale. Situé sur un continent à majorité anglophone, le Québec se distingue principalement par sa langue et une identité culturelle qui s'est développée sur une période de plus de 400 ans. Soucieux de sauvegarder son caractère unique en Amérique, le Québec s'est efforcé d'établir des contacts dans le monde francophone pour y puiser l'énergie et le soutien nécessaires à son affirmation cul­ turelle et pour collaborer à l'édification d'un nouvel ensemble géopolitique. ("Québec et la Francophonie." ) With its wealthy modem economy, high degree of globalization, and language politics, Quebec presents a unique case study of the issues ani­ mating the OIF, in particular those surrounding the cultural exception. Quebec's competitive international outlook (Fry) and location in English North America make it a particularly important test for the survival of the French language and French cultural products, as well as for the abilities of the OIF to advance its agenda on the global stage. Two key themes animate Quebec's participation in the OIF: global economy and cultural diversity. Québec Studies, Volume 32, Fall 2001/Winter 2002

Access Token
£25.00

Adler, Tim. "Europe to Tell US ‘That's All, Folks!’ at Trade Talks." Sunday Business Post 28 November 1999. http://www.lexis-nexis/news. http://www.lexis-nexis/news Europe to Tell US ‘That's All, Folks!’ at Trade Talks Sunday Business Post Google Scholar

Ager, D. E. Francophonie in the 1990s: Problems and Opportunities. Bristol, PA: Multilingual Matters Ltd., 1996. Francophonie in the 1990s: Problems and Opportunities Google Scholar

"At Harvard, Beaudoin Argues for Culture in Hemispheric Trade Talks." Quebec Update. March 2000: 1. Google Scholar

Attali, Jacques. Keynote Speech from the Paris Convention: "Géopolitique de la langue française." The French Review 74.3 (2001): 463-77. Keynote Speech from the Paris Convention: "Géopolitique de la langue française The French Review 74 463 77 Google Scholar

Baum, Gregory. "Nationalisme et mouvements sociaux contre l'hégémonie du marché." Colloque le 8 octobre 1999. June 2000. http://www.ledevoir.com/ago/1999a/nbaum.htm126 Google Scholar

Beaudoin, Louise. "Globalization and Cultural Diversity: What Does Québec Want?" Address at Harvard University. 7 February 2000. http://www.mri.gouv.qc.ca/ny/news_info/globalization_speech.html Google Scholar

Beaudoin, Louise. Remarks. Association for Canadian Studies in the United States. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 18 November 1999. Remarks. Association for Canadian Studies in the United States Google Scholar

"Behind the Bluster." Economist 26 May 2001: 58-61. Google Scholar

Bélanger, Louis. "The Changing World Order and Quebec's International Relations: An Analysis of Two Salient Environments." Canada and the New World Order: Facing the New Millennium. Eds. Michael J. Tucker, Raymond B. Blake and P. E. Bryden. Toronto: Irwin Publishing, 2000. 163-84 Canada and the New World Order: Facing the New Millennium 163 84 Google Scholar

Belkhodja, Chedly. "Entre la discorde et l'indifférence: le Québec, le Nouveau-Brunswick et la Francophonie internationale." Canada and the New World Order: Facing the New Millennium. Eds. Michael J. Tucker, Raymond B. Blake, and P. E. Bryden. Toronto: Irwin Publishing, 2000. 185-200 Canada and the New World Order: Facing the New Millennium 185 200 Google Scholar

Bloche, Patrick, M. le Député. Rapport au Premier ministre: "Le désir de France-La présence internationale de la France et la francophonie dans la société de l'information." 7 December 1998. http://www.internet.gouv.fr/francais/textesref/rapbloche98/sommaire.html Google Scholar

Boisvert, Yves. "L'Idée de mondialisation perd du terrain." La Presse 23 juin 2001. http://www.cyberpresse.ca. http://www.cyberpresse.ca L'Idée de mondialisation perd du terrain La Presse Google Scholar

Bosher, J. F. The Gaullist Attack on Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen's UP, 1999. The Gaullist Attack on Canada Google Scholar

Bourdieu, Pierre. Acts of Resistance against the Tyranny of the Market. Trans. Richard Nice. New York: The New Press, 1998. Acts of Resistance against the Tyranny of the Market Google Scholar

Bourdieu, Pierre and Loïc Wacquant. "La Nouvelle Vulgate Planétaire." Le Monde Diplomatique (May 2000): 6-7. La Nouvelle Vulgate Planétaire Le Monde Diplomatique 6 7 Google Scholar

Bourdieu, Pierre and Loïc Wacquant. "On the Cunning of Imperialist Reason." Theory, Culture & Society 16.1 (2000): 41-58. On the Cunning of Imperialist Reason Theory, Culture & Society 16 41 58 Google Scholar

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. "L'an I de la Francophonie politique." Le Monde 23 February 1999:15. L'an I de la Francophonie politique Le Monde 15 Google Scholar

"Boutros-Ghali: la conférence économique de l'OIF a favorisé ‘la concertation.’" Agence France Presse 15 April 1999. http://www.afp-direct.com/ Google Scholar

"Boutros-Ghali: pas de modification du niveau de représentation au sommet de Beyrouth." L'Orient le Jour. Online. 20 September 2001. http://www.lorient-lejour.com.lb Google Scholar

Caldwell, Christopher. "Vedrinism: France's Global Ambitions." Policy Review 103 (October-November 2000): 19-32. Vedrinism: France's Global Ambitions Policy Review 103 19 32 Google Scholar

"Catherine Tasca prend la défense du cinéma français après les déclarations de Jean-Marie Messier." 19 December 2001. http://www.fr.news.yahoo.com/011219/5/2dlml.html Google Scholar

Chipman, John. French Power in Africa. Cambridge: Basil Blackwell, 1989. French Power in Africa Google Scholar

"CIDA and La Francophonie." Canadian International Development Agency. http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Csipak, James and Lise Héroux. "NAFTA, Quebecers and Fear (?) of Americanization: Some Empirical Evidence." Québec Studies 29 (2000): 25-42 NAFTA, Quebecers and Fear (?) of Americanization: Some Empirical Evidence Québec Studies 29 25 42 Google Scholar

Daoud, Arezki. "Parlez-vous Francais? What is la Francophonie?" The North Africa Journal 8 November 1997. http://www.north-africa.com/one.html. http://www.north-africa.com/one.html Parlez-vous Francais? What is la Francophonie? The North Africa Journal Google Scholar

DeBenedetti, George J. "Reflections on the Tenth Anniversary of the Canada-U. S. Free Trade Agreement: What Has the FTA Meant for Canada?" Canada and the New World Order: Facing the New Millennium. Eds. Michael J. Tucker, Raymond B. Blake and P. E. Bryden. Toronto: Irwin Publishing, 2000. 151-62. Canada and the New World Order: Facing the New Millennium 151 62 Google Scholar

Déclaration du Sommet de Moncton. "VIIIème Conférence des chefs d'Etat et de gouvernement des pays ayant le français en partage." Moncton, 15 September 1999. Google Scholar

Dickinson, John and Brian Young. A Short History of Quebec, 2nd edition. Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman Ltd., 1993. A Short History of Quebec Google Scholar

Drache, Daniel and Meric S. Gertler. "The World Economy and the Nation State: The New International Order." The World Economy and the Nation State: The New International Order. Eds. Daniel Drache and Meric S. Gertler. Montreal: McGill-Queen's UP, 1991. 3-25 The World Economy and the Nation State: The New International Order 3 25 Google Scholar

Duhamel, Ron J. "Africa Direct Natural Resources and the 21st Century Economy: The Case for Stronger Canadian-African Collaboration." Speech given in Calgary, 8 May 2000. Google Scholar

Dutrisac, Robert. "Premier Bouchard Finds Leeway." Le Devoir 15 September 1999. Translated Québec Press Review 12 October 1999: 7. Premier Bouchard Finds Leeway Le Devoir Google Scholar

Dutrisac, Robert. "Sommet de la Francophonie: un compromis se dessine au sujet de la diversité culturelle." Le Devoir 9 June 2001. http://www.LeDevoir.com. http://www.LeDevoir.com Sommet de la Francophonie: un compromis se dessine au sujet de la diversité culturelle Le Devoir Google Scholar

Elmandjra, Mahdi. "Maghreb et Francophonie, Le Premier Sommet Francophone: Instrument de Relations Internationales?" Les Sommets Francophones. ÊÉd. Centre Québécois des Relations Internationales. Paris: Economica, 1988. 15-21. Les Sommets Francophones 15 21 Google Scholar

Embassy of France in the United States. "France's Africa Policy." January 2001. http://www.info-france-usa.org/news/statmnts/2001/africa.asp Google Scholar

"EU Seeks to Protect Cultural Diversity of its States in WTO Talks." Agence France Presse 14 November 1999. http://www.lexis-nexis/news Google Scholar

"Exception culturelle: les francophones veulent se mobiliser face à l'Amérique." Yahoo France 4 September 1999. http://www.yahoo.fr/actualité/19990904 Google Scholar

"France/Mondialisation-Chirac évoque les ‘lignes rouges.’" Yahoo France 4 September 1999. http://www.yahoo.fr/actualité/19990904 Google Scholar

"Francophone Nations Push for United ‘Cultural Exception’ Front against US." Agence France Presse http://www.afp.com/english/home Google Scholar

"Francophonie." Ministère des Relations Internationales. Gouvernement du Québec. January 2002. http://www.mri.gouv.qc/francophonie/index.html Google Scholar

"Francophonie Ministers Mulling Creation of Human Rights Watchdog." AP Worldstream 30 November 1999. http://www.ciponline.org Google Scholar

"French Blows its Horn." Economist 27 November 1997: 99-100. Google Scholar

"From the Berlin Wall to the Quebec Wall." Canadian Dimension 35. 3 (2001): 2-3. Google Scholar

Fry, Earl H. "Quebec Confronts Globalization: A Model for the Future?" Québec Studies 30 (2000): 57-69. Quebec Confronts Globalization: A Model for the Future? Québec Studies 30 57 69 Google Scholar

Fukuyama, Francis. "Will Socialism Make a Comeback?" Time 155.21 (2000). 110-13. Will Socialism Make a Comeback? Time 155 110 13 Google Scholar

"Global Internet Statistics (by language)." Global Reach. 31 March 2002. http://www.glreach.com/globstats/ Google Scholar

Gouveia, Lourdes and Mark O. Rousseau. "Talk is Cheap: The Value of Language in the World Economy-Illustrations from the United States and Quebec." Sociological Inquiry (May 1995): 156-80. Talk is Cheap: The Value of Language in the World Economy-Illustrations from the United States and Quebec Sociological Inquiry 156 80 Google Scholar

Gouvernement du Québec, Commission des États généraux sur la situation at l'avenir de la langue française au Québec. Le français, une langue pour tout le monde. 30 August 2001. http://www.etatsgeneraux.gouv.qc.ca Google Scholar

Gouvernement du Québec, Ministère des Relations Internationles. "Québec et la Francophonie." http://www.mri.gouv.qc.ca/francophonie/html Google Scholar

Gouvernement du Québec, Ministère des Relations Internationles. http://www.mri.gouv.qc.ca/francophonie/defis Google Scholar

Gouvernement du Quebec, Ministère de l'Industrie et du Commerce. http://www.mic.gouv.qc.ca/commerce-exterieur/notest13-81-99.htm Google Scholar

Gouvernement du Quebec, Ministère de l'Industrie et du Commerce. "Ministère de l'Industrie et du Commerce." 17 mai 2002. http://www.mic.gouv.qc.ca/ Google Scholar

Haut Conseil de la Francophonie. État de la francophonie dans le monde. Paris: Documentation Française. 1985, 1986-87, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1993, 1994, 1996-96, 1997-98. État de la francophonie dans le monde Google Scholar

"Jacques Chirac défend l'exception culturelle au Canada." Le Monde 3 September 1999. http://www.lemonde.fr/article/ Google Scholar

"Jospin's Way." Economist 18 September 1999: 55. Google Scholar

Keet, Dot. "The Challenges Facing African Countries Regarding the WTO Trade Regime since the Third Ministerial Meeting in Seattle." Institute for Global Dialogue, Occasional Paper 25, May 2000. The Challenges Facing African Countries Regarding the WTO Trade Regime since the Third Ministerial Meeting in Seattle Google Scholar

Korten, David. When Corporations Rule the World. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press, 1996. When Corporations Rule the World Google Scholar

Kurlantzick, Joshua. "Quebec City Dispatch: Trade Off." The New Republic 7 May 2001: 14-16. Quebec City Dispatch: Trade Off The New Republic 14 16 Google Scholar

Laczko, Leslie. Pluralism and Inequality in Quebec. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995. Pluralism and Inequality in Quebec Google Scholar

Latouche, Daniel. "Quebec and Canada: Scenarios for the Future." Business in the Contemporary World 3.1 (1990). 58-70. Quebec and Canada: Scenarios for the Future Business in the Contemporary World 3 58 70 Google Scholar

Laux, J. K., and M. Molot. State Capitalism: Public Enterprise in Canada. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1988. State Capitalism: Public Enterprise in Canada Google Scholar

Lebert, Marie. "Multilingualism on the Web." Centre d'Expertise et de Veille Inforoutes et Langues (CEVEIL). February 1999. Multilingualism on the Web Google Scholar

"Le Canada et la Francophonie." Les Canadiens dans le monde. 2002. http://www.canschool.org/orgs/francophonie/historique-f.asp Google Scholar

Le Quesne, Nicholas. "Antiglobalization Guerrilla." Time 12 November 2001: 94. Antiglobalization Guerrilla Time 94 Google Scholar

"Les partisans de l'exception culturelle se mobilisent face à J2M." 19 December 2001. http://fr.news.yahoo.com/011219/202/2d2kq.html Google Scholar

Levine, Marc. "L'Avenir du français à Montréal: la politique gouvernementale et le caractère linguistique de la métropole." Testimony to Quebec's Commission on the Future of French in Quebec, January 2001. 30 August 2001. http://www.etatsgeneraux.gouv.qc.ca Google Scholar

McChesney, Robert W. "Global Media, Neoliberalism and Imperialism." Monthly Review 52.10 (2001). http:/www.monthlyreview.org. http://www.monthlyreview.org Global Media, Neoliberalism and Imperialism Monthly Review 52 Google Scholar

Morin, Jacques-Yvan. "Le Premier Sommet de la Communauté Francophone." Revue Québécoise de Droit Internationale 3 (1986): 79-131. Le Premier Sommet de la Communauté Francophone Revue Québécoise de Droit Internationale 3 79 131 Google Scholar

Meunier, Sophie. "The French Exception." Foreign Affairs 79.4 (2000): 104-17. The French Exception Foreign Affairs 79 104 17 Google Scholar

Nabakwe, Ruth. "Africa-at-Large: Cultural Wealth not Commodity for Sale-Francophonie." Panafrican News Agency. 1 December 1999. http://www.africanews.org. http://www.africanews.org Africa-at-Large: Cultural Wealth not Commodity for Sale-Francophonie Panafrican News Agency Google Scholar

Nations Unies, Assemblée Générale. "Coopération entre l'Organisation des Nations Unies et l'Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie." 20 September 2001. http://www.un.org/french/ga Google Scholar

Nima, Jant. "France and Africa: The Lost Opportunities." Legacy (Spring/Summer 2001): 38-46. France and Africa: The Lost Opportunities Legacy 38 46 Google Scholar

Nye, Joseph. Bound to Lead. New York: Basic Books, 1990. Bound to Lead Google Scholar

"OMC-Francophone." Agence France Presse 15 April 1999. http://www.afp-direct.com Google Scholar

"Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie." January 2002. http://www.francophonie.org Google Scholar

Perin, Roberto. "Answering the Quebec Question: Two Centuries of Equivocation." Negotiating With A Sovereign Quebec. Ed. Daniel Drache and Roberto Perin. Toronto: James Lorimer and Co., 1992. Negotiating With A Sovereign Quebec Google Scholar

"Quebec: A Special International Report" prepared by the Washington Times Advertising Department. 31 March 200. http://www.internationalspecialreports.com/archives/00/quebec/3.html Google Scholar

"Quebec: Building Partnerships in the Americas." Site Selection Online. July 1999. http://www.conway.com/sshighlites/0799/p580/ Google Scholar

Ritzer, George. Enchanting a Disenchanted World: Revolutionizing the Means of Consumption. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press, 1999. Enchanting a Disenchanted World: Revolutionizing the Means of Consumption Google Scholar

Roche, François. "Que reste-t-il de l'exception culturelle après Seattle?" Regards sur l'Actualité 258 (2000): 13-26. Que reste-t-il de l'exception culturelle après Seattle? Regards sur l'Actualité 258 13 26 Google Scholar

Rousseau, Mark O. "Ethnic Mobilization in Quebec, Federalism in Canada, and the Global Economy." Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change 21 (1999): 205-23. Ethnic Mobilization in Quebec, Federalism in Canada, and the Global Economy Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change 21 205 23 Google Scholar

Saint-Prot, Charles and Aymeric Chauprade. "Francophonie: le second souffle." Politique Internationale 77 (1997): 255-66 "Francophonie: le second souffle Politique Internationale 77 255 66 Google Scholar

Salon, Albert. "La Francophonie, nouvel objet de la défense nationale." Defense Nationale 51 (1995): 45-58. La Francophonie, nouvel objet de la défense nationale Defense Nationale 51 45 58 Google Scholar

Schraeder, Peter J. "Cold War to Cold Peace: Explaining U. S.-French Competition in Francophone Africa." Political Science Quarterly 115.3 (2000): 395-419. Cold War to Cold Peace: Explaining U. S.-French Competition in Francophone Africa Political Science Quarterly 115 395 419 Google Scholar

Siroën, Jean-Marc. "L'OMC après Seattle." Regards sur l'Actualité 258 (2000): 3-11. L'OMC après Seattle Regards sur l'Actualité 258 3 11 Google Scholar

"Summit's critics show no merci-Fault Francophone event for host city, delegates." Boston Globe 4 September 1999: A-1. Google Scholar

"The French Farmers' Anti-global Hero." Economist 8 July 2000: 50. Google Scholar

Thérien, Jean-Philippe. "Déterminants internes et externes de la participation canadienne à la Francophonie." Revue d'études canadiennes 26 (1992): 53-74. Déterminants internes et externes de la participation canadienne à la Francophonie Revue d'études canadiennes 26 53 74 Google Scholar

Thérien, Jean-Philippe. "Cooperation and Conflict in la Francophonie." International journal 48 (1993): 492-526. Cooperation and Conflict in la Francophonie." International journal 48 492 526 Google Scholar

Tshiyembe, Mwayila. "Africa's New Players Jostle for Power." Le Monde Diplomatique. http:/www.en.monde-diplomatique.fr. January 1999. http://www.en.monde-diplomatique.fr Africa's New Players Jostle for Power Le Monde Diplomatique Google Scholar

"Use of French Strong in Montreal." Quebec Update September 1999: 2. Google Scholar

Vaillancourt, François. "Language and socioeconomic status in Quebec: measurement, findings, determinants, and policy costs." International Journal of the Sociology of Language 121 (1996): 69-92. Language and socioeconomic status in Quebec: measurement, findings, determinants, and policy costs International Journal of the Sociology of Language 121 69 92 Google Scholar

Vaillancourt, François. Langue et statut économique au Québec. Québec: Gouvernement du Québec, 1991. Langue et statut économique au Québec Google Scholar

Whiteman, Kaye. "Edinburgh, Libreville and Hanoi." Round Table 346 (1998): 139-48. Edinburgh, Libreville and Hanoi Round Table 346 139 48 Google Scholar

Weinstein, Brian. "Francophonie: A Language-Based Movement in World Politics." International Organization 30.3 (1976): 485-507. Francophonie: A Language-Based Movement in World Politics International Organization 30 485 507 Google Scholar

Wright, Erik Olin, ed. The Debate on Classes. London: Verso, 1989. The Debate on Classes Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Neathery-Castro, Jody

Rousseau, Mark