Quebec Studies

"Gli Italiani non hanno paura": Italian-Language Newspapers and the 1970 October Crisis

Quebec Studies (2013), 55, (1), 135–150.

Abstract

135 "GH Italiani non hanno paura": Italian-Language Newspapers and the 1970 October Crisis Patrizia Gentile Carleton University In The Empire Within, Sean Mills comments on the place of memory in our understanding of the October Crisis, emphasizing the need to focus on the "effects of the crisis on both the political culture of the province [Québec] and the everyday lives of its citizens" (185). Mills's foundational study contextualizes the FLQ's actions as one of many "popular revolts" that gripped Montreal in the 1960s, and offers an insightful analysis of how the FLQ was influenced by uprisings on a local, national, and international scale. Al­ though he acknowledges the importance of studying the FLQ and the Octo­ ber Crisis as part of a political movement, Mills also calls for a study of how this crisis affected people's daily lives. This article highlights part of the Montreal Italian community's expe­ rience of the October Crisis and responds to a lacuna in the historiography and scholarship of this event in Québec and Canadian history.1 I present preliminary findings of a new project engaged in collecting and analyzing previously undocumented accounts of one of Quebec's largest ethnic com­ munities (163,655 Italians lived in Québec in 1971) in order to challenge and deconstruct the dominant narratives surrounding the October Crisis as an historical exemplar of French-English relations in Canada. Although there is a tendency to conceptualize Québec society along linguistic lines (franco­ phone, anglophone, and allophone), this understanding muffles the mul­ tiple and complicated cultural perspectives that shape political and social stances regarding major events such as the 1970 October Crisis.2 Too often, the conflicting views and experiences of immigrant communities disappear behind these linguistic divisions. The scholarship on the October Crisis mimics these linguistic categorizations without exploring how certain im­ migrant communities responded as distinct cultural and political identities. The existing silences permeating the October Crisis scholarship perpetuate the belief that the October Crisis was a conflict between separatism and fed­ eralism that pitted Francophones against Anglophones and did not involve other populations; secondly, this approach erases the impact of nationalist and security debates on Quebec's immigrant communities. A brief review of the literature on the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) and the October Crisis highlights the scholarly gaps around the Italian community's role in the political and social debates that unfolded in this era. These gaps indicate a need for expanding the scholarship beyond the narratives of the "key players," namely, former FLQ members, journal­ ists reporting on the October Crisis, and former politicians. To broaden the historiography of this period, I offer a preliminary analysis of two main­ stream Italian community newspapers, II Corriere Italiano and II Cittadino Québec Studies, Volume 55, Spring/Summer 2013

Access Token
£25.00

Baille, Jean-Pascal. "La poésie en colère." Bulletin d'histoire politique 2.1 (2002): 43-53 La poésie en colère Bulletin d'histoire politique 2 43 53 Google Scholar

Bédard, Éric. Chronique d'une insurrection appréhendée: La crise d'octobre et le milieu universitaire. Sillery, Québec: Les Éditions du Septentrion, 1998 Chronique d'une insurrection appréhendée: La crise d'octobre et le milieu universitaire Google Scholar

Boissevain, Jeremy. The Italians of Montreal: Social Adjustment in a Plural Society. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1970 The Italians of Montreal: Social Adjustment in a Plural Society Google Scholar

Bourassa, Robert. Gouverner le Québec. Montréal: Fides, 1995 Gouverner le Québec Google Scholar

Cardin, Jean-François. Comprendre Octobre 1970: Le FLQ, La Crise, et Le Syndicalisme. Montréal: Méridien, 1990 Comprendre Octobre 1970: Le FLQ, La Crise, et Le Syndicalisme Google Scholar

Carbonneau, Huguette. Ma vie avec Marc Carbonneau. Montréal: Du Jour, 1972 Ma vie avec Marc Carbonneau Google Scholar

Claveau, Jean. "La crise de Saint-Léonard." Action Nationale 59.3 (1969): 228-35 La crise de Saint-Léonard Action Nationale 59 228 35 Google Scholar

Clément, Dominique. Canada's Rights Revolution: Social Movements and Social Change, 1937-82. Vancouver: U British Columbia P, 2008 Canada's Rights Revolution: Social Movements and Social Change, 1937-82 Google Scholar

Comby, Marc. "L'expérience du Front d'action politique des salariés à Montréal." Bulletin d'histoire politique 19.2 (2011): 118-32 L'expérience du Front d'action politique des salariés à Montréal Bulletin d'histoire politique 19 118 32 Google Scholar

Comeau, R., D. Cooper, et P. Vallières. FLQ: un projet révolutionnaire: lettres et écrits felquistes. Montréal: Vlb éditeur, 1990 FLQ: un projet révolutionnaire: lettres et écrits felquistes Google Scholar

Cross, James. "Kidnapping in Canada —1970." British Journal of Canadian Studies 5.2 (1990): 269-74 Kidnapping in Canada —1970 British Journal of Canadian Studies 5 269 74 Google Scholar

Cvetkovich, Ann. An Archive of Feeling: Trauma, Sexuality and Lesbian Public Culture. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2003 An Archive of Feeling: Trauma, Sexuality and Lesbian Public Culture Google Scholar

Dagenais, Bernard. Le Crise d'octobre et les médias: Les miroir à dix faces. Montréal: Vlb éditeur, 1990 Le Crise d'octobre et les médias: Les miroir à dix faces Google Scholar

De Castello, Alfredo. "Governare e decidere: La grave scelta di Robert Bourassa." Il Corriere Italiano, October 16, 1970: 36-38 Governare e decidere: La grave scelta di Robert Bourassa Il Corriere Italiano 36 38 Google Scholar

De Castello, Alfredo. "Il governo finalmente governo: Lo ‘stato di guerra’ in Canada." Il Corriere Italiano, October 23, 1970: 3 Il governo finalmente governo: Lo ‘stato di guerra’ in Canada Il Corriere Italiano 3 Google Scholar

De Castello, Alfredo. "Canada: Il messagio di Trudeau." Il Corriere Italiano, October 23, 1970: 7 Canada: Il messagio di Trudeau Il Corriere Italiano 7 Google Scholar

Dion, Germain. Une tornade de 60 jours: la crise d'octobre a la Chambre des communes. Hull: Asticou, 1985 Une tornade de 60 jours: la crise d'octobre a la Chambre des communes Google Scholar

Doucet, Ray. "Italian Immigrants Go Home." Ottawa Journal, 17 November 1970: 7 Italian Immigrants Go Home Ottawa Journal 7 Google Scholar

Ferrabee, James. "Italian Citizens Upset." Montreal Gazette, 20 October 1970: 11 Italian Citizens Upset Montreal Gazette 11 Google Scholar

Fournier, Louis. F. L. Q.: Histoire d'un mouvement clandestin. Montréal: Québec/Amérique, 1982 F. L. Q.: Histoire d'un mouvement clandestin Google Scholar

"Gagnon: Sulla sinistra Québecchese." Il Lavoratore 3. 1-2 (1972): 4 Google Scholar

Haggart, Ron. Rumours of War: The Definitive Analysis of the 1970 October Crisis. Toronto: James Lorimer, 1979 Rumours of War: The Definitive Analysis of the 1970 October Crisis Google Scholar

Hamilton, Paula, and Linda Shopes, eds. Oral History and Public Memories. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 2008 Oral History and Public Memories Google Scholar

Hawa, Giuliana, "L'Attesa di due donne." Il Corriere Italiano, October 16, 1970: 39 L'Attesa di due donne Il Corriere Italiano 39 Google Scholar

Hawa, Giuliana "Ora l'ha perduto per sempre!" Il Corriere Italiano, October 23, 1970: 31 Ora l'ha perduto per sempre! Il Corriere Italiano 31 Google Scholar

Hudon, Gabriel. Ce n'était qu'un début. Montréal: Parti Pris, 1977 Ce n'était qu'un début Google Scholar

Iacovetta, Franca. Such Hardworking People: Italian Immigrants in Postwar Toronto. Montreal: McGill-Queen's UP, 1992 Such Hardworking People: Italian Immigrants in Postwar Toronto Google Scholar

Iacovetta, Franca. Gatekeepers: Reshaping Immigrant Lives in Cold War Canada. Toronto: Between the Lines, 2006 Gatekeepers: Reshaping Immigrant Lives in Cold War Canada Google Scholar

"Il Drama del Québec." Il Corriere Italiano, November 6, 1970: 1 Google Scholar

"Il Movimento Progressista Italo-Québecchese." Il Lavoratore 3.3 (1972): 6 Google Scholar

"Il razzismo del Corriere Italiano." Il Lavoratore 3. 3 (March 1972): 2 Google Scholar

Lanctôt, Louise. Une sorcière comme les autres. Montréal: Québec/Amérique, 1981 Une sorcière comme les autres Google Scholar

Lanzieri, Sergio, "Violenza e lotta politica," Il Corriere Italiano, October 16, 1970: 4 Violenza e lotta politica Il Corriere Italiano 4 Google Scholar

Lanzieri, Sergio "Gli italiani non hanno paura." Il Corriere Italiano, November 6, 1970: 4 Gli italiani non hanno paura Il Corriere Italiano 4 Google Scholar

Lefron, Dominique. "Mémoire en coulisses: Les dramatiques d'octobre." Bulletin d'histoire politique 2.1 (2002): 15-28 Mémoire en coulisses: Les dramatiques d'octobre Bulletin d'histoire politique 2 15 28 Google Scholar

Leroux, Manon. Le silence d'Octobre: Le discours des acteurs de la crise de 1970. Montreal: Vlb éditeur, 2002 Le silence d'Octobre: Le discours des acteurs de la crise de 1970 Google Scholar

Lévesque, René. My Québec. Toronto: Methuen, 1979 My Québec Google Scholar

"L'F. L. Q. In Azione: Rapito Un Diplomatico Inglese." Il Corriere Italiano, 9 October 1970: 1: 3 Google Scholar

Linteau, Paul-André. "The Italians of Québec: Key participants in contemporary linguistic and political debates." In Arrangiarsi: The Italian Immigration Experience in Canada. Eds. Roberto Perin and Frank Sturino. Toronto: Guernica, 2007. 179-207 Arrangiarsi: The Italian Immigration Experience in Canada 179 207 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Mills, Sean. The Empire Within: Postcolonial Thought and Political Activism in Sixties Montreal. Montreal: McGill-Queen's UP, 2010 The Empire Within: Postcolonial Thought and Political Activism in Sixties Montreal Google Scholar

Mingarelli, Giosofat. Gli Italiani di Montreal: Note et Profili. Montreal: Edizione Ciaca, 1980 Gli Italiani di Montreal: Note et Profili Google Scholar

Mongeau, Serge. Kidnappé par la polke. Montréal: Éditions du Jour, 1970 Kidnappé par la polke Google Scholar

Painchaud, Claude et Richard Poulin. "Italianità, conflit linguistique et structure du pouvoir dans la communauté italo-québécoise," Sociologie et sociétés 15. 2 (1983): 89-104 Italianità, conflit linguistique et structure du pouvoir dans la communauté italo-québécoise Sociologie et sociétés 15 89 104 Google Scholar

Painchaud, Claude et Richard Poulin. Les Italiens au Québec. Hull: Critiques, 1988 Les Italiens au Québec Google Scholar

Pelletier, Jacques. "Octobre 1970 et la transformation des rapports littérature/société depuis la révolution tranquille." Québec Studies 11 (1990): 45-62 Octobre 1970 et la transformation des rapports littérature/société depuis la révolution tranquille Québec Studies 11 45 62 Google Scholar

Pelletier, Jacques. "Des aires d'octobre." Bulletin d'histoire politique 2.1 (2002): 29-41 Des aires d'octobre Bulletin d'histoire politique 2 29 41 Google Scholar

Perin, Roberto, and Angelo Principe, eds. Enemies Within: Italian and Other Internees in Canada and Abroad. Toronto: U Toronto P, 2000 Enemies Within: Italian and Other Internees in Canada and Abroad Google Scholar

Perin, Roberto and Frank Sturino, eds. Arrangiarsi: The Italian Immigration Experience in Canada. Toronto: Guernica, 2007 Arrangiarsi: The Italian Immigration Experience in Canada Google Scholar

Ramirez, Bruno. The Italians of Montreal: From Sojourning to Settlement, 1900-1921. Montreal: Associazione di Cultura Popolare Italo-Québecchese, 1980 The Italians of Montreal: From Sojourning to Settlement, 1900-1921 Google Scholar

Ross, Kristin. May '68 and Its Afterlives. Chicago: U Chicago P, 2002 May '68 and Its Afterlives Google Scholar

Ryan, Claude. Le Devoir et la Crise d'octobre 1970. Ottawa: Les Éditions Leméac, 1971 Le Devoir et la Crise d'octobre 1970 Google Scholar

Salvatore, Filippo. Fascism and the Italians of Montréal: An Oral History, 1922-1945. Toronto: Guernica, 1998 Fascism and the Italians of Montréal: An Oral History, 1922-1945 Google Scholar

Simard, Francis. Pour en finir avec octobre. Montreal: Stanké, 1982 Pour en finir avec octobre Google Scholar

"Solidarity Statement by Mouvement Progressiste Italo-Québécois." National Minority News 1.1 (10 Jan. 1971): 2 Google Scholar

Tetley, William. The October Crisis, 1970: An Insider's View. Montreal-Kingston: McGill-Queen's UP, 2007 The October Crisis, 1970: An Insider's View Google Scholar

Trudeau, Pierre Elliott. Memoirs. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1993 Memoirs Google Scholar

"Vallières dall'FLQ al Parti Québecois." Il Lavoratore 3. 1-2 (1972): 2 Google Scholar

Vallières, Pierre. Nègres blancs d'Amérique. Montréal: Québec/Amérique, 1979 Nègres blancs d'Amérique Google Scholar

Vallières, Pierre. The Assassination of Pierre Laporte. Toronto: James Lorimer, 1977 The Assassination of Pierre Laporte Google Scholar

Warren, Jean-Philippe. "À la defense des prisonniers politiques québécois: Autour du Comité d'aide au Groupe Vallières-Gagnon." Bulletin d'histoire politique 19.2 (2011): 53-71 À la defense des prisonniers politiques québécois: Autour du Comité d'aide au Groupe Vallières-Gagnon Bulletin d'histoire politique 19 53 71 Google Scholar

Whitaker, Reginald. "Apprehended Insurrection? RCMP Intelligence and the October Crisis." Queen's Quarterly 100.2 (1993): 383-406 Apprehended Insurrection? RCMP Intelligence and the October Crisis Queen's Quarterly 100 383 406 Google Scholar

Zucchi, John. Italians in Toronto: Development of a National Identity, 1875-1935. Montreal: McGill-Queen's UP, 1988 Italians in Toronto: Development of a National Identity, 1875-1935 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Gentile, Patrizia