Quebec Studies

Identity Paradiplomacy in Québec

Quebec Studies (2018), 66, (1), 3–26.

Abstract

This article explains why Québec is one the most active subnational governments at the international level. Traditionally, researchers discuss paradiplomacy and protodiplomacy, but neither concept fits the case of Québec very well. In Québec, there is a consensus among the political parties that favors “identity paradiplomacy.” The fundamental aim of Québec’s identity paradiplomacy is to construct and reinforce Québec’s national identity by undertaking international actions abroad. Identity paradiplomacy is more intense than typical paradiplomacy and is distinct from protodiplomacy in that it does not aim for political independence. The twofold purpose of Québec’s international strategy is to galvanize Québec’s development and to achieve international recognition of Québec as a nation abroad.

Access Token
£25.00

Aldecoa, Francisco, and Michael Keating, eds. 1999. Paradiplomacy in Action: The Foreign Relations of Subnational Governments. London: Frank Cass Publishers. Paradiplomacy in Action: The Foreign Relations of Subnational Governments Google Scholar

Bache, Ian, and Matthew Flinders, eds. 2004. Multi-level Governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Multi-level Governance Google Scholar

Beaudoin, Louise. 1977. “Origines et développement du rôle international du gouvernement du Québec.” In Le Canada sur la scène internationale, edited by Paul Painchaud, 441–470. Montréal: Centre québécois de relations internationales et Presses de l’Université du Québec. Origines et développement du rôle international du gouvernement du Québec Le Canada sur la scène internationale Google Scholar

Bélanger, Louis. 1994. “La diplomatie culturelle des provinces canadiennes.” Études internationales 25 (3): 421–452. La diplomatie culturelle des provinces canadiennes Études internationales 25 421 452 Google Scholar

Bernier, Luc. 1996. De Paris à Washington. La politique internationale du Québec. Sainte-Foy: Presses de l’Université du Québec. De Paris à Washington. La politique internationale du Québec Google Scholar

Chaloux, Annie. 2009. “Fédéralisme, relations transfrontalières et changements climatiques: le cas de la Conférence des gouverneurs de la Nouvelle-Angleterre et premiers ministres de l’Est du Canada.” MA diss., Université de Sherbrooke. Fédéralisme, relations transfrontalières et changements climatiques: le cas de la Conférence des gouverneurs de la Nouvelle-Angleterre et premiers ministres de l’Est du Canada Google Scholar

Chaloux, Annie, and Hugo Séguin. 2012. “États fédérés et mise en oeuvre de traités climatiques internationaux: le cas du Québec.” Revue de droit de l’Université de Sherbrooke 41 (3): 607–632. États fédérés et mise en oeuvre de traités climatiques internationaux: le cas du Québec Revue de droit de l’Université de Sherbrooke 41 607 632 Google Scholar

Chaloux, Annie, and Stéphane Paquin. 2012. “Green Paradiplomacy in North America: Climate Change Regulation at Subnational Level: Successes and Limits of the NEG-ECP.” In Taking Action for Sustainable Development. Subnational Policies and Multi-Level Interactions, edited by Hans Bruyninckx, Sander Happaerts, and Karoline Van den Brande, 245–263. London: Palgrave. Green Paradiplomacy in North America: Climate Change Regulation at Subnational Level: Successes and Limits of the NEG-ECP Taking Action for Sustainable Development. Subnational Policies and Multi-Level Interactions Google Scholar

Chaloux, Annie, Stéphane Paquin, and Hugo Séguin. 2015. “Federalism and Climate Change Negotiations: The Role of Québec.” International Negotiations 19 (1): 291–318. Federalism and Climate Change Negotiations: The Role of Québec International Negotiations 19 291 318 Google Scholar

Courchene, Tom J. 2000. “NAFTA, the Information Revolution, and Canada-U.S. Relations: An Ontario Perspective.” The American Review of Canadian Studies 30 (2): 159–180. NAFTA, the Information Revolution, and Canada-U.S. Relations: An Ontario Perspective The American Review of Canadian Studies 30 159 180 Google Scholar

Courchene, Tom J. 2003. “FTA at 15, NAFTA at 10: A Canadian Perspective on North American Integration.” North American Journal of Economics and Finance 14 (2): 263–285. FTA at 15, NAFTA at 10: A Canadian Perspective on North American Integration North American Journal of Economics and Finance 14 263 285 Google Scholar

Criekemans, David. 2010. “Regional Sub-State Diplomacy from a Comparative Perspective: Quebec, Scotland, Bavaria, Catalonia, Wallonia and Flanders.” The Hague Journal of Diplomacy 5 (1–2): 37–64. Regional Sub-State Diplomacy from a Comparative Perspective: Quebec, Scotland, Bavaria, Catalonia, Wallonia and Flanders The Hague Journal of Diplomacy 5 37 64 Google Scholar

De Mestral, Armand, and Evan Fox-Decent. 2008. “Rethinking the Relationship Between International and Domestic Law.” McGill Law Journal 53 (4): 543–648. Rethinking the Relationship Between International and Domestic Law McGill Law Journal 53 543 648 Google Scholar

Dehousse, Renaud. 1989. “Fédéralisme, asymétrie et interdépendance: aux origines de l’action internationale des composantes de l’État fédéral.” Études internationales 20 (2): 283–309. Fédéralisme, asymétrie et interdépendance: aux origines de l’action internationale des composantes de l’État fédéral Études internationales 20 283 309 Google Scholar

Dieckhoff, Alain. 2000. La nation dans tous ses États. Les identités nationales en mouvement. Paris: Flammarion. La nation dans tous ses États. Les identités nationales en mouvement. Google Scholar

Dyment, David M. 2001. “The Ontario Government as an International Actor.” Regional and Federal Studies 11 (1): 55–79. The Ontario Government as an International Actor Regional and Federal Studies 11 55 79 Google Scholar

Fry, Earl. 2013. The Development of Sub-State Cross-Border Interactions in North America, 1994–2012: The Impact of NAFTA and the Post-9/11 Security Policies. Unpublished manuscript. The Development of Sub-State Cross-Border Interactions in North America, 1994–2012: The Impact of NAFTA and the Post-9/11 Security Policies Google Scholar

Gouvernement du Canada. 2005. L’émergence de régions transfrontalières. Rapport provisoire. Projet de recherche sur les politiques. Google Scholar

Gouvernement du Québec. 2018. “Réseau des représentations à l’étranger.” http://www.mrif.gouv.qc.ca/fr/ministere/representation-etranger. Google Scholar

Hamelin, Jean. 1969. “Québec et le monde extérieur.” Annuaire statistique du Québec, 1968–1969. Québec: Éditeur officiel du Quebec. 2–36. Québec et le monde extérieur Annuaire statistique du Québec, 1968–1969 2 36 Google Scholar

Hicks, Brian M. 2006. “Is ‘French Fact’ Still Relevant to Liberal Party?” Toronto Star, 22 February, A17. Is ‘French Fact’ Still Relevant to Liberal Party? Toronto Star Google Scholar

Hocking, Brian. 1993. Localizing Foreign Policy: Non-central Governments and Multilayered Diplomacy. New York: St-Martin’s Press. Localizing Foreign Policy: Non-central Governments and Multilayered Diplomacy Google Scholar

Hocking, Brian. 2003. “Unraveling the Central State, But How? Types of Multi-Level Governance.” American Political Science Review 97 (2): 233–243. Unraveling the Central State, But How? Types of Multi-Level Governance American Political Science Review 97 233 243 Google Scholar

Hooghe, Liesbet, and Gary Marks. 2003. “Unraveling the Central State, But How? Types of Multi-Level Governance.” American Political Science Review 97 (2): 233–243. Unraveling the Central State, But How? Types of Multi-Level Governance American Political Science Review 97 233 243 Google Scholar

Jeffery, Charlie. 2000. “Sub-national Mobilization and European Integration: Does it Make Any Difference?” Journal of Common Market Studies 38 (1): 1–23. Sub-national Mobilization and European Integration: Does it Make Any Difference? Journal of Common Market Studies 38 1 23 Google Scholar

Keating, Michael. 1997. Les défis du nationalisme moderne. Québec, Catalogne, Écosse. Montréal: Presses de l’Université de Montréal. Les défis du nationalisme moderne. Québec, Catalogne, Écosse. Google Scholar

Kirkey, Christopher, Stéphane Paquin, and Stéphane Roussel. 2016. “Charting Québec’s Engagement with the International Community.” American Journal of Canadian Studies 46 (2): 1–13. Charting Québec’s Engagement with the International Community American Journal of Canadian Studies 46 1 13 Google Scholar

Kukucha, Christopher. 2008. The Provinces and Canadian Foreign Trade Policy. Vancouver, University of British Columbia Press. The Provinces and Canadian Foreign Trade Policy Google Scholar

Kukucha, Christopher. 2013. “Canadian Sub-federal Governments and CETA: Overarching Themes and Future Trends.” International Journal 68 (4): 528–535. Canadian Sub-federal Governments and CETA: Overarching Themes and Future Trends International Journal 68 528 535 Google Scholar

Lachapelle, Guy. 2000. “Identity, Integration and the Rise of Identity Economy: The Quebec Case in Comparison with Scotland, Wales and Catalonia.” In Globalization, Governance and Identity: The Emergence of New Partnerships, edited by Guy Lachapelle and John Trent, 211–231. Montréal: Presses de l’Université de Montréal. Identity, Integration and the Rise of Identity Economy: The Quebec Case in Comparison with Scotland, Wales and Catalonia Globalization, Governance and Identity: The Emergence of New Partnerships Google Scholar

Lachapelle, Guy. 2018. “Political Parties as a Tool of Identity Paradiplomacy: The Case of the Parti Québécois and the UNESCO Convention on Cultural Diversity.” In Borders and Margins: Federalism, Devolution and Multi-Level Governance, edited by Guy Lachapelle and Pablo Onate, 123–156. Opladen: Barbara Budrich Publishers. Political Parties as a Tool of Identity Paradiplomacy: The Case of the Parti Québécois and the UNESCO Convention on Cultural Diversity Borders and Margins: Federalism, Devolution and Multi-Level Governance Google Scholar

Lecours, André, and Luis Moreno. 2001. “Paradiplomacy and Stateless Nations: A Reference to the Basque Country.” Working Paper 01–06, Unidad de Politicas Comparadas (CSCI). http://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/1472. Google Scholar

Lequesne, Christian, and Stéphane Paquin. 2017. “Federalism, Paradiplomacy and Foreign Policy: A Case of Mutual Neglect.” International Negotiation 22 (2): 183–204. Federalism, Paradiplomacy and Foreign Policy: A Case of Mutual Neglect International Negotiation 22 183 204 Google Scholar

Lisée, Jean-François. 2006. “Comment le Québec est devenu une région-État nord-américaine.” In Histoire des relations internationales du Québec, edited by Stéphane Paquin, 239–262. Montréal: VLB éditeur. Comment le Québec est devenu une région-État nord-américaine Histoire des relations internationales du Québec Google Scholar

Lubin, Michael. 1993. “The Routinization of Cross-Border Interactions: An Overview of the NEG/ECP Structures and Activities.” In States and Provinces in the International Economy, edited by Douglas M. Brown and Earl H. Fry, 145–166. Berkeley: Institute of Government Studies Press. The Routinization of Cross-Border Interactions: An Overview of the NEG/ECP Structures and Activities States and Provinces in the International Economy Google Scholar

Martin, Pierre. 1995. “When Nationalism Meets Continentalism: The Politics of Free Trade in Quebec.” Regional and Federal Studies 5 (1): 1–27. When Nationalism Meets Continentalism: The Politics of Free Trade in Quebec Regional and Federal Studies 5 1 27 Google Scholar

McHugh, James. 2015. “Paradiplomacy, Protodiplomacy and the Foreign Policy Aspiration of Quebec and the Other Canadian Provinces.” Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 21 (3): 238–256. Paradiplomacy, Protodiplomacy and the Foreign Policy Aspiration of Quebec and the Other Canadian Provinces Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 21 238 256 Google Scholar

Mesli, Sami. 2014. La coopération franco-québécoise dans le domaine de l’éducation. De 1965 à nos jours. Québec: Septentrion. La coopération franco-québécoise dans le domaine de l’éducation. De 1965 à nos jours Google Scholar

Michaud, Nelson, and Ian Ramet. 2004. “Québec et politique étrangère: contradiction ou réalité?” International Journal 59 (2): 303–324. Québec et politique étrangère: contradiction ou réalité? International Journal 59 303 324 Google Scholar

Michelmann, Hans, ed. 2009. Foreign Relations in Federal Countries. Montréal: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Foreign Relations in Federal Countries Google Scholar

Ministère des Relations internationales du Québec (MRI). 2006. La politique internationale du Québec: la force de l’action concertée. Québec: Gouvernement du Québec. Google Scholar

Ministère des Relations internationales et de la Francophonie du Québec (MRIF). 2017a. Rapport annuel de gestion, 2016–2017. Québec: Gouvernement du Québec. Google Scholar

Ministère des Relations internationales et de la Francophonie du Québec (MRIF). 2017b. Le Québec dans le monde: s’investir, agir, prospérer. Québec: Gouvernement du Québec. Google Scholar

Morin, Claude. 1987. L’art de l’impossible. La diplomatie québécoise depuis 1960. Montréal: Boréal. L’art de l’impossible. La diplomatie québécoise depuis 1960 Google Scholar

Morin, David, and Poliquin Myriam. 2016. “Governing the Border? Québec’s role in North American Security.” American Review of Canadian Studies 46 (2): 254–272. Governing the Border? Québec’s role in North American Security American Review of Canadian Studies 46 254 272 Google Scholar

Nossal, Kim Richard, Stéphane Roussel, and Stéphane Paquin. 2011. International Policy and Politics in Canada. Toronto: Pearson Education. International Policy and Politics in Canada Google Scholar

Paquin, Stéphane. 2001. La revanche des petites nations. Le Québec, l’Écosse et la Catalogne face à la mondialisation. Montréal: VLB éditeur. La revanche des petites nations. Le Québec, l’Écosse et la Catalogne face à la mondialisation Google Scholar

Paquin, Stéphane. 2002. “La paradiplomatie identitaire. Le Québec et la Catalogne en relations internationales.” PhD diss., Institut d’études politiques de Paris. La paradiplomatie identitaire. Le Québec et la Catalogne en relations internationales Google Scholar

Paquin, Stéphane. 2004. Paradiplomatie et relations internationales. Théorie des stratégies internationales des régions face à la mondialisation. Brussels: Presses interuniversitaires européennes-Peter-Lang. Paradiplomatie et relations internationales. Théorie des stratégies internationales des régions face à la mondialisation. Google Scholar

Paquin, Stéphane. 2005. “La paradiplomatie identitaire: le Québec, la Flandre et la Catalogne en relations internationales.” Politique et sociétés 23 (3): 176–194. La paradiplomatie identitaire: le Québec, la Flandre et la Catalogne en relations internationales Politique et sociétés 23 176 194 Google Scholar

Paquin, Stéphane. 2006. “Les relations internationales du Québec avant la Révolution tranquille.” In Histoire des relations internationales du Québec, edited by Stéphane Paquin, 3–18. Montréal: VLB éditeur. Les relations internationales du Québec avant la Révolution tranquille Histoire des relations internationales du Québec Google Scholar

Paquin, Stéphane. 2008. “La paradiplomatie des États américains et la cohérence de la politique étrangère des États-Unis.” In L’action extérieure des entités subétatiques. Approche comparée. Europe-Amérique du Nord, edited by Françoise Massart-Piérard, 51–65. Louvain: Presses de l’Université Louvain-La-Neuve. La paradiplomatie des États américains et la cohérence de la politique étrangère des États-Unis L’action extérieure des entités subétatiques. Approche comparée. Europe-Amérique du Nord Google Scholar

Paquin, Stéphane. 2010. “Federalism and Compliance with International Agreements: Belgium and Canada Compared.” The Hague Journal of Diplomacy 5 (1–2): 173–197. Federalism and Compliance with International Agreements: Belgium and Canada Compared The Hague Journal of Diplomacy 5 173 197 Google Scholar

Paquin, Stéphane. 2013a. “Federalism and the Governance of International Trade Negotiations in Canada: Comparing CUSFTA with CETA.” International Journal 28 (4): 545–552. Federalism and the Governance of International Trade Negotiations in Canada: Comparing CUSFTA with CETA International Journal 28 545 552 Google Scholar

Paquin, Stéphane. 2013b. “Québec and Ontario’s International Relations: Explaining the Differences.” In Quebec-Ontario Relations: A Shared Destiny?, edited by Jean-François Savard, Alexandre Brassard, and Louis Côté, 229–258. Québec: Presses de l’Université du Québec. Québec and Ontario’s International Relations: Explaining the Differences Quebec-Ontario Relations: A Shared Destiny? Google Scholar

Paquin, Stéphane. 2016. “Quebec-US Relations: The Big Picture.” American Journal of Canadian Studies 46 (2): 149–161. Quebec-US Relations: The Big Picture American Journal of Canadian Studies 46 149 161 Google Scholar

Paquin, Stéphane, and Gopinath Jeyalalaratnam. 2016. “La politique internationale du Québec sous Jean Charest: l’influence d’un premier ministre.” Revue québécoise de droit international (June): 165–183. La politique internationale du Québec sous Jean Charest: l’influence d’un premier ministre Revue québécoise de droit international 165 183 Google Scholar

Parent, Raymonde. 2001. “Entente conclue entre le Québec et l’État de New York.” Le Nouvelliste. 15 December. Entente conclue entre le Québec et l’État de New York Le Nouvelliste Google Scholar

Patry, André. 1980. Le Québec dans le monde. Montréal: Leméac. Schiavon, Jorge A. 2010. “Sub-State Diplomacy in Mexico.” The Hague Journal of Diplomacy 5 (1–2): 65–97. Le Québec dans le monde. Montréal: Leméac The Hague Journal of Diplomacy 5 65 97 Google Scholar

Skogstad, Grace. 2012. “International Trade Policy and the Evolution of Canadian Federalism.” In Canadian Federalism, 3rd ed., edited by H. Bakvis and G. Skogstad, 204–224. Don Mills: Oxford University Press. International Trade Policy and the Evolution of Canadian Federalism Canadian Federalism Google Scholar

Soldatos, Panayotis. 1990. “An Explanatory Framework for the Study of Federated States as Foreign-Policy Actors.” In Federalism and International Relations: The Role of Subnational Units, edited by H. J. Michelmann and Panayotis Soldatos, 34–53. Oxford: Clarendon Press. An Explanatory Framework for the Study of Federated States as Foreign-Policy Actors Federalism and International Relations: The Role of Subnational Units Google Scholar

VanDuzer, Anthony. 2013. “Could an Intergovernmental Agreement Make Canadian Treaty Commitments in Areas within Provincial Jurisdiction More Credible?” International Journal 68 (4): 536–544. Could an Intergovernmental Agreement Make Canadian Treaty Commitments in Areas within Provincial Jurisdiction More Credible? International Journal 68 536 544 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Paquin, Stéphane