Labour History: A Journal of Labour and Social History

Class Factors in the Radicalisation of Archbishop Daniel Mannix, 1913–17

Labour History: A Journal of Labour and Social History (2014), 106, (1), 189–204.

Abstract

Revisiting the legendary opposition to conscription for World War I by Daniel Mannix, the Catholic Archbishop of Melbourne, this article offers new evidence to support the hypothesis that working-class strongholds of Melbourne and their political leaders influenced the radicalisation of Mannix. In particular, West Melbourne where Mannix was living between 1913 and 1917, is discussed; and an analysis is offered of the context and timing of Mannix’s public statements at Clifton Hill, Preston and Brunswick in relation to the first referendum of 28 October 1916. Drawing on fresh analysis of newspaper reports and the relevant secondary literature, the article concludes that Mannix won leadership in a rare alliance between labour militants and an archbishop by supporting and helping articulate the already developing demands of a mass movement.

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Footnotes

1.Michael McKernan, Australian Churches at War: Attitudes and Activities of the Major Churches 1914–1918(:Australian War Memorial, 1980), 123. Google Scholar

3.Ian Turner, Industrial Labour and Politics: The Dynamics of the Labour Movement in Eastern Australia 1900–1921(:Hale & Iremonger, 1979), 115;James Griffin, completed by Paul Ormonde, Daniel Mannix: Beyond the Myths(:John Garratt, 2013), 158. Google Scholar

4.Bertha Walker, Solidarity Forever!(:National Press, 1972);Verity Burgman, Revolutionary Industrial Unionism: The Industrial Workers of the World in Australia(:Cambridge University Press, 1995);Frank Cain, The Wobblies at War: A History of the IWW and the Great War in Australia(:Spectrum, 1993);Joy Damousi, “Socialist Women and Gendered Space: Anti-Conscription and Anti-War Campaigns 1914–1918,”inGender and War: Australians at War in the Twentieth Century, ed.Joy DamousiandMarilyn Lake(:Cambridge University Press, 1995), 254–73;L. F. Fitzhardinge, William Morris Hughes: A Political Biography, Volume 2: The Little Digger, 1914–1952(:Angus & Robertson, 1979);Roy ForwardandBob Reece, ed., Conscription in Australia(:University of Queensland Press, 1968);Joe Harris, The Bitter Fight: A Pictorial History of the Australian Labor Movement(:Queensland University Press, 1970);Ann-Mari Jordens, “Against the Tide: The Growth and Decline of a Liberal Anti-War Movement in Australia, 1905–1918,” Australian Historical Studies 22, no. 88(April1987):373–94;Ann-Mari Jordens, “Anti-War Organisations in a Society at War, 1914–1918,” Journal of Australian Studies 26(May1990):78–93;J. M. Main, Conscription: The Australian Debate 1901–1970(:Cassell, 1970);Rosalie McCutcheon, “Margaret Holmes: Larger than the Roles she Played,”inWomen, Faith and Fetes: Essays in the History of Women and the Church in Australia, ed.Sabine Willis(:Dove, 1977), 94–116;Hilary Summy, Peace Angel of World War I: Dissent of Margaret Thorp(:Australian Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, 2006). Google Scholar

5.There seems to be no detailed study of the Irish in the Australian labour movement.Keith Pescod, “Irish Participation in Victoria’s Union Movement,” Australasian Journal of Irish Studies 11(2011):7–27; this surveys sources for one state. Google Scholar

6.For example,A. D. Gilbert, “The Conscription Referenda, 1916–17: The Impact of the Irish Crisis,” Historical Studies 14, no. 53(October1969):54–72. See also, among others,McKernan, Australian Churches at War;Max Charlesworth, “Australian Catholics and Conscription,”inForwardandReece, Conscription in Australia, 22–65;Ken Inglis, “Conscription in Peace and War, 1911–1945,”in Forward and Reece, Conscription in Australia, 242–59. Google Scholar

7.The following are the major books on Mannix:Cyril Bryan, Archbishop Mannix: Champion of Democracy(:Advocate Press, 1918);E. J. Brady, Doctor Mannix, Archbishop of Melbourne(:Library of National Biography, 1934);Frank Murphy, Daniel Mannix, Archbishop of Melbourne(:Polding Press, 1972);Niall Brennan, Dr Mannix(:Rigby, 1964);Walter Ebsworth, Archbishop Mannix(:H. H. Stephenson, 1977);Michael Gilchrist, Daniel Mannix: Priest and Patriot(:Dove, 1982);B. A. Santamaria, Daniel Mannix: The Quality of Leadership(:Melbourne University Press, 1984);Colm Kiernan, Daniel Mannix and Ireland(:Allela Books, 1984);Patrick Mannix, The Belligerent Prelate: An Alliance between Archbishop Daniel Mannix and Eamon de Valera(:Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2012);Griffin, Daniel Mannix. See alsoPatrick Morgan, Melbourne before Mannix: Catholics in Public Life 1880–1920(:Connor Court, 2012). Google Scholar

8.Val Noone, Hidden Ireland in Victoria(:Ballarat Heritage Services, 2012), 114–28. Google Scholar

9.Santamaria, Daniel Mannix, 77. Google Scholar

10.Kiernan, Daniel Mannix and Ireland, 80. Google Scholar

11.Morgan, Melbourne before Mannix, 33. Google Scholar

12.Winsome Roberts, Molesworth Street: A North Melbourne Neighbourhood 1840–1905(:Hotham History Project, 2002), 35, 54, 85. Google Scholar

13.Kiernan, Daniel Mannix and Ireland, 79. Google Scholar

15.“The Coadjutor on Conscription: Fair at Clifton Hill,” Advocate, 23 September1916, 25. Google Scholar

16.Anthony Rhodes, Power of Rome in the Twentieth Century: The Vatican in the Age of Liberal Democracies, 1870–1922(:Franklin Watts, 1983), 240–41. In 1966, when addressing the issue of conscription for Vietnam, Advocateeditor Michael Costigan returned to this argument used by Mannix and the Pope; seeVal Noone, Disturbing the War: Melbourne Catholics and Vietnam(:Spectrum, 1993), 92. Google Scholar

17.Bernard Barrett, The Inner Suburbs: The Evolution of an Industrial Area(:Melbourne University Press, 1971), 146–47. Google Scholar

18.James Griffin, John Wren: A Life Reconsidered(:Scribe, 2004), 162–64, 236–45. Google Scholar

19.Researchers with greater local knowledge than the present writer will find scope for further analysis in the detailed lists of parish leaders and visiting dignitaries which were published in theAdvocateon this and the other occasions under discussion. Google Scholar

20.Noone, Hidden Ireland in Victoria, 113–14; and on the William Rooney Society, see117–18. Google Scholar

21.Ralph Biddington, The Political Life of Dr William Maloney 1854–1940: Humanist, Socialist, MLA and MHR, First Labour Member for Melbourne(:The Author, 2010), 307–23.Compare Walker, Solidarity Forever, 102–25. Google Scholar

22.Morgan, Melbourne before Mannix, 176. Google Scholar

23.“Fight against Conscription: The Coadjutor Firm, Stands by Every Word He Spoke: Strong Speech at Preston,” Advocate, 28 October1916, 23–24. Google Scholar

26.“Catholic Workers’ Association: Anti-Conscription Meeting to be Held,” Advocate, 21 October1916, 24.“Catholic Workers Oppose: Spirited Speeches at Mass Meeting, Determined Attitude,” Advocate, 28 October1916, 23–24. Google Scholar

27.Ebsworth, Archbishop Mannix, 148–49, 214–15. Google Scholar

28.“The Coadjutor at Brunswick: New Christian Brothers’ School Opened: War and Unemployment, Phantom High School,” Advocate, 3 February1917, 12–13. Google Scholar

29.Griffin, Daniel Mannix, 134ff. According to my notes taken on 15 March 2013, when launching Griffin’s book at Newman College, Melbourne, Barry Jones said that Griffin disagreed with Mannix about World War I being a trade war but that he, Jones, agreed with Mannix. Google Scholar

30.“Mr Hughes: Economic Conference Resolutions Explained,” Sydney Morning Herald, 22 June1916, 7. Thanks to Doug Newton for assistance on this point. Google Scholar

31. “The Coadjutor at Brunswick.” Google Scholar

32.Biddington, The Political Life, 311. Google Scholar

33.Susan Blackburn Abeyasekere, “Blackburn, Maurice McCrae,” Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 7(:Melbourne University Press, 1979), 310. Google Scholar

34.While not explicitly addressing the trade war issue, Greg Lockhart’s recent article debunking the myth of a spontaneous Australian response to the declaration of war tables evidence about the detailed preparations for the war by British imperial commanders and their Australian collaborators for several years before the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand or the German invasion of Belgium. SeeGreg Lockhart, “Race Fear, Dangerous Denial,” Griffith Review, no. 32 (May2011):122–63. Google Scholar

35.Charles Sowerwine, France since 1870: Culture, Society and the Making of the Republic, 2nd ed. (:Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), 86–87. Google Scholar

36.Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, On War and Peace: Three Articles(:Foreign Language Press, 1970), 12. Google Scholar

37.Angus Mitchell, Roger Casement(:O’Brien Press, 2013), 212, 291, 368. Casement published a booklet on this topic, The Crime against Europe: A Possible Outcome of the War of 1914(:The Continental Times, 1915). Google Scholar

38.Chris McConville has noted that writers such as Patrick O’Farrell have forgotten that “after 1917, the Russian and Irish uprising were often seen in tandem.” SeeChris McConville, “Patrick O’Farrell on the Irish in Australia,”inIrish-Australian Studies: Papers Delivered at the Sixth Irish-Australian Conference July 1990, ed.Philip Bull,Chris McConvilleandNoel McLachlan(:La Trobe University Press, 1991), 263. Google Scholar

39.Ebsworth, Archbishop Mannix, 215. Google Scholar

40.McKernan, Australian Churches at War, 122–23. In recent years McKernan seems to have shifted to understanding the anti-conscription campaigns more in terms of sectarianism than moral leadership or class politics. SeeMichael McKernan, “That Prolific Mother of Strife,” Griffith Review, no. 7 (February2006):151–57. Google Scholar

41.Burgmann, Revolutionary Industrial Unionism, 198. The wording of the poster was: “To Arms! Capitalists, Parsons, Politicians, Landlords, Newspaper Editors and Other Stay-At-Home Patriots. Your country needs YOU in the trenches! WORKERS Follow Your Masters.” Google Scholar

42.Paul Adams, The Best Hated Man in Australia: The Life and Death of Percy Brookfield 1875–1921(:Puncher & Wattmann, 2010), 127. Google Scholar

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Noone, Val