Labour History

Labour and Politics

Labour History (2011), 100, (1), 105–126.

Abstract

Labour-in-politics was once the most privileged genre of Australian labour history. Studies of the Australian Labor Party, together with biographies of the party’s leading lights, dominated much of the Old Left-influenced scholarship until the late 1960s. From the 1970s onwards, however, the rise of social history and the highly-charged attacks of the New Left challenged such party-political dominance. Such histories were increasingly written by political scientists or outside of academe altogether. At the twentieth century’s turn, labour-in-politics appeared to be in terminal decline; an interpretation that persists to this day. By contrast, this historiographical article contends that politically-themed labour history is in rude health; close attention to culture and discourse, combined with a well-contextualised sensitivity to the role of gender and race, has enlivened rather than superseded the genre. Similarly, studies of localism and the trend towards transnational and comparative history are increasingly fleshing out themes of native exceptionalism.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Endnotes

1.John Norton, ‘Introduction’, inJohn Norton(ed.), The History of Capital and Labour in All Lands and Ages,Oceanic Publishing,, 1888, p.ix. Google Scholar

2. Boomerang, 2March1889(original emphasis). Google Scholar

3.Eric Hobsbawm makes a very similar point in regards to British historiography (‘Labor history and ideology’, Journal of Social History, no.7, 1974, p.371). Google Scholar

4.Greg Patmore, ‘Australian labor historiography: The influence of the USA’, Labor History, vol.37, no.4, p.526. Google Scholar

5.Norton, History of Labour and Capital, pp.v-ix. Google Scholar

6.Robin Gollan, ‘Labour history’, Labour History, no.1, 1962, p.4. Google Scholar

7.Frank Farrell, ‘Labour history in Australia’, International Labor and Working Class History, no.21, Spring1982, p.1. For an argument about history work in the labour movement during the earliest period seeTerry Irving, ‘Rediscovering radical history’, Hummer, vol.6, no.2, 2010, pp.15-29. Google Scholar

8.George Black, Labor in Politics: The New South Wales Labor Party: What It Did and What It Prevented, 3rdedition,Workman Print,, 1894, pp.3, 5;George Black, The Labor Party in New South Wales: A History from its Formation in 1891 until 1904,Worker Trades Union Printery,, 1904. A decade after being expelled from Labor for his pro-conscription views during World War I, Black developed his book into a seven-part series, on this occasion bearing a more caustic sub-title;George Black, A History of the N.S.W. Political Labor Party from Its Conception until 1917: A Critical Review,George A. Jones, 1926-30. Of the intended 12 monthly parts, only numbers 1 to 7 were published. Thos.R. Roydhouse andH.J. Taperell, The Labour Party in New South Wales: A History of its Formation and Legislative Career Together with Biographies of the Members, and the Complete Text of the Trade Disputes Conciliation and Arbitration Act, 1892,Edwards Dunlop,, 1892. Google Scholar

9.Victor S. Clark, The Labor Movement in Australasia: A Study in Social-Democracy,Henny Holt & Co.,, 1906, pp.118-19;Albert Metin, Socialism without Doctrine, trans.Russel Ward,Alternative Publishing Co-operative,, 1977[1904]. See alsoW. Pember Reeves, State Experiments in Australia and New Zealand, 2vols,Grant Richards,, 1902. Google Scholar

10.W.G. Spence, Australia’s Awakening: Thirty Years in the Life of an Australian Agitator,Worker Trustees,, 1909, ‘Preface’. Two years later Spence wrote theHistory of the A.W.U.,Worker Trustees,, 1911. Google Scholar

11.SeeCoral Lansbury andBede Nairn, ‘Spence, William Guthrie (1846-1926)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume6,Melbourne University Press, 1976, pp.168-70. Google Scholar

12.See his 1908 presidential address to the ALP’s triennial federal conference urging the labour movement to write its own history;‘Fourth Interstate Political Labor Conference Report’, cited inWorker(), 23July1908. Google Scholar

13.Spence, Australia’s Awakening, ‘Preface’; pp.264, 278. Google Scholar

14.T.H. Smeaton, The People in Politics: A Short History of the Labor Movement in South Australia, Including Biographical Sketches of its Representatives in Parliament,Cooperative Printing and Publishing,, 1914;John D. Fitzgerald, The Rise of the Australian Labor Party,Worker Print,, 1915. Google Scholar

15.V.I. Lenin, ‘In Australia’, Pravda, 13June1913;W.R. Winspear, Economic Warfare,The Marxian Press,, 1915, pp.34-35. Google Scholar

16.E.J. Holloway, The Australian Victory over Conscription,Anti-Conscription Jubilee Committee,, 1917(1966);N.J.O. Makin, A Progressive Democracy: A Record of Reference Concerning the South Australian Branch of the Australian Labor Party in Politics,The Daily Herald,, 1918. Google Scholar

17.Ibid, p.23. Google Scholar

18.V. Gordon Childe, How Labour Governs: A Study of Workers’ Representation in Australia, 2ndedition, Carlton, 1964[1923], pp.180-81. On Childe’s writings, seeTerry Irving, ‘New light onHow Labour Governs: re-discovered political writings by Vere Gordon Childe’, Politics, vol.23, no.1, May1988andTerry Irving, ‘How labour governs: Lessons for today’, Hummer, vol.5, no.2, 2009. Google Scholar

19.Ibid, pp.17, 85. Google Scholar

20.F.B. Smith, ‘Introduction’, in Childe, How Labour Governs, p.vii. Irving criticises Smith’s interpretation as a misreading of Childe. Google Scholar

21.W.K. Hancock, Australia,Ernest Benn,, 1930(reprinted byJacaranda Press,, 1961), pp.202-3, 212. Google Scholar

22.See, for instance,James Larcombe, Notes on the Political History of the Labor Movement in Queensland,Worker Newspaper,, 1934;G.M. Prendergast, Labor in Politics: Its Influence on Legislation,Australian Labor Party, Victorian Branch,, 1922; Australian Labor Party, South Australian Branch, Labor’s Thirty Years Record in South Australia: A Short History of the Labor Movement in South Australia, including Biographical Sketches of Leading Members, 1893-1923,Daily Herald,, 1923; Australian Labor Party, Western Australian Branch, Labor’s Unique Record: A Brief History of the Administrative and Legislative Achievements of the Collier Government,Worker Print,, 1927. Google Scholar

23.Warren Denning, Caucus Crisis: The Rise and Fall of the Scullin Government,Cumberland Argus,, 1937;H.V. Evatt, Australian Labour Leader: The Story of W A. Holman and the Labour Movement,Angus and Robertson,, 1940. Google Scholar

24.Lloyd Ross, ‘Australian labour and the crisis’, Economic Review, vol.8, December1932;E.W. Campbell, A Short History of the Australian Labour Movement,Current Books,, 1945. See alsoLloyd Ross, The Development of the Australian Labor Movement,Australian Railways Union,, c.1935and1940;L.L. Sharkey, An Outline History of the Australian Communist Party,Australian Communist Party,, 1944, p.17. Ross also wrote a biography ofWilliam Lane(William Lane and the Australian Labor movement,Forward Press,, 1935) and, as we shall later see, one of John Curtin. Google Scholar

25.Brian Fitzpatrick, A Short History of the Australian Labor Movement,Rawson’s Bookshop,, 1944, ‘Preface’. Google Scholar

26.Ibid, p.39. Google Scholar

27.Brian Fitzpatrick, The Australian People, 1788-1945, 2ndedition,Melbourne University Press,, 1951, p.41. Google Scholar

28.Fitzpatrick, Australian Labor Movement, p.105. Google Scholar

29.Robin Gollan, Radical and Working Class Politics: A Study of Eastern Australia, 1850-1910,Melbourne University Press,, 1960. Google Scholar

30.Russel Ward, The Australian Legend,Oxford University Press,, 1958, in particular ch. 8;Robert Noel Ebbels(ed.), The Australian Labor Movement, 1850-1907: Extracts from Contemporary Documents,Noel Ebbels Memorial Committee in association with Australasian Book Society,, 1960;Miriam Dixson, Greater than Lenin?: Lang and Labor 1916-32,University of Melbourne, Political Science Dept,, 1977. Google Scholar

31.Ian Turner, Industrial Labour and Politics: The Dynamics of the Labour Movement in Eastern Australia, 1900-1921,Hale and Iremonger,, 1979, pp.xvii-xviii. Google Scholar

32.L.F. Crisp, The Australian Federal Labour Party, 1901-1951,Longmans,, 1955, p.5. See alsoL.F. Crisp andS.P. Bennett, Australian Labor Party: Federal Personnel 1901-1954,Canberra University College,, 1954. Google Scholar

33.D.W. Rawson, Labor in Vain? A Survey of the Australian Labor Party,Longmans,, 1966, p.123;L.F. Fitzhardinge, William Morris Hughes: A Political Biography, vol. 1: That Fiery Particle, 1862-1914;P.J. O’Farrell,, 1964;L.F. Fitzhardinge, William Morris Hughes: A Political Biography, Vol. 2: The Little Digger 1914-1952,John Robertson,, 1979;L.F. Crisp, Ben Chifley: A Biography,J.W. Button,, 1961;Coral Lansbury, ‘William Guthrie Spence’, Labour History, no.13, 1967, pp.3-10. Google Scholar

34.Humphrey McQueen, A New Britannia,Penguin Books,, 1970, pp.12, 15, 236. Consult alsoHumphrey McQueen, ‘Laborism and socialism’, inRichard Gordon(ed.), The Australian New Left: Critical Essays and Strategy,Heinemann,, 1970. Google Scholar

35.Terry Irving, ‘Symposium: What is labour history?’, Labour History, no.12, May1967, p.77. Google Scholar

36.See alsoTerry Irving andBaiba Berzins, ‘History and the New Left’, inGordon, The Australian New Left, andStuart Macintyre, ‘Radical history and bourgeois hegemony’, Intervention, no.2, October1972, pp.47-73. Google Scholar

37.McQueen, A New Britannia, pp.12, 236. Google Scholar

38.R.W. Connell andT.H. Irving, Class Structure in Australian History: Documents, Narrative and Argument,Longman Cheshire,, 1980. Google Scholar

39.Stuart Macintyre, ‘The concept of class in recent labourist historiography: Early socialism and labor’, Intervention, no.8, March1977, pp.82, 86. See alsoStuart Macintyre, ‘The making of the Australian working class: An historiographical survey’, Historical Studies, vol.18, October1978, pp.233-53. Google Scholar

40.John Rickard, Class and Politics: New South Wales, Victoria and the Early Commonwealth, 1890-1910,Australian National University Press,, 1976, pp.297-310. Google Scholar

41.Ann Curthoys andAndrew Markus(eds), Who are Our Enemies?: Racism and the Australian Working Class,Hale and Iremonger in association with the Australian Society for the Study of Labour History,, 1978;Andrew Markus, Fear and Hatred: Purifying Australia and California, 1850-1901,Hale and Iremonger,, 1979. Google Scholar

42.Miriam Dixson, The Real Matilda: Woman and Identity in Australia, 1788-1975,Penguin Books,, 1976. See also theLabour Historyspecial issue,‘Women at Work’, no.29, 1975;Marilyn Lake, ‘Socialism and manhood: The Case of William Lane’, Labour History, no.50, May1986, pp.54-62. Google Scholar

43.D.J. Murphy(ed.), Labor in Politics: The State Labor Parties in Australia, 1880-1920,University of Queensland Press,, 1975;D.J. Murphy,R.B. Joyce andColin A. Hughes(eds), Prelude to Power: The Rise of the Labour Party in Queensland 1885-1915,Jacaranda,, 1970;D. J. Murphy,R. B. Joyce andC. A. Hughes(eds), Labor in Power: The Labor Party and Governments in Queensland, 1915-57,University of Queensland Press,, 1980; andD. J. Murphy, T.J. Ryan: A Political Biography,University of Queensland Press,, 1975. Google Scholar

44.Bede Nairn, Civilising Capitalism: The Labor Movement in New South Wales, 1870-1900,Australian National University Press,, 1973;Jim Hagan, The History of the A.C.T.U,Longman Cheshire,, 1981, p.45; andBede Nairn, The ‘Big Fella’: Jack Lang and the Australian Labor Party 1891-1949,Melbourne University Press,, 1986, p.xiii. Google Scholar

45.John Robertson, J.H. Scullin: A Political Biography,University of Western Australia Press,, 1975;Lloyd Ross, John Curtin: A Biography,Macmillan,, 1977;Colm Kiernan, Calwell: A Personal and Political Biography,Thomas Nelson,, 1978;Robert Murray, The Split: Australian Labor in the Fifties,Cheshire,, 1970;Paul Reynolds, The Democratic Labor Party,Jacaranda Press,, 1974. See alsoPaul Ormonde, The Movement,Thomas Nelson,, 1972. Google Scholar

46.Alastair Davidson, The Communist Party of Australia: A Short History,Hoover Institution Press,, 1969, p.179;Robin Gollan, Revolutionaries and Reformists: Communism and the Australian Labour Movement, 1920-1955,George Allen & Unwin,, 1975;G.C. Hewitt, A History of the Victorian Socialist Party, 1906-1932, unpublishedMA thesis,La Trobe University, 1974. See alsoFrank Farrell, International Socialism and Australian Labor: The Left in Australia, 1919-1939,Hale and Iremonger,, 1981.Paul Strangio, Neither Power nor Glory: A Hundred Years of Victorian Labor, 1856-1956,Melbourne University Press,[forthcoming]. Google Scholar

47.Bruce O’Meagher(ed.), The Socialist Objective: Labor and Socialism,Hale and Iremonger,, 1983. See, in particular, the chapters byO’Meagher andTerry Irving;Verity Burgmann, In Our Time: Socialism and the Rise of Labor 1885-1905,Allen and Unwin,, 1985. Google Scholar

48.Peter Love, Labour and the Money Power: Australian Labour Populism 1890-1950,Melbourne University Press,, 1984;Ray Markey, The Making of the Labor Party in New South Wales, 1880-1900,UNSW Press,, 1988;R.P. Davis, Eighty Years’ Hard Labor,Sassafras,, 1983;Jim Moss, Sound of Trumpets: History of the Labour Movement in South Australia,Wakefield Press,, 1985;Ross Fitzgerald andHarold Thornton, Labor in Queensland: 1880 to 1988,University of Queensland Press,, 1989. Google Scholar

49.Cited in Stuart Macintyre,‘Who are the true believers?’, Labour History, no.68, May1995, p.161. Google Scholar

50.Graham Freudenberg, Cause for Power: The Official History of the New South Wales Branch of the Australian Labor Party,Pluto Press in association with the NSW ALP,, 1991, p.3. Google Scholar

51.Michael Costa andMark Duffy, Labor, Prosperity and the Nineties: Beyond the Bonsai Economy,Federation Press,, 1991, p.viii;Jim Hagan andKen Turner, A History of the Labor Party in New South Wales, 1891-1991,Longman Cheshire,, 1991. See alsoB. Ellem,J. Hagan andK. Turner, ‘The origins of the Labor Party in the southern wheatbelt of New South Wales, 1891-1913’, Labour History, no.55, November1988, pp.22-38;Ross McMullin, The Light on the Hill: The Australian Labor Party, 1891-1991,Oxford University Press,, 1992. Google Scholar

52.Graham Maddox, The Hawke Government and Labor Tradition,Penguin,, 1989, p.8;Tim Battin, ‘A break from the past: The Labor Party and the political economy of Keynesian social democracy’, Australian Journal of Political Science, vol.28, 1993, p.222;Tim Battin andGraham Maddox, ‘Australian Labor and the socialist tradition’, Australian Journal of Political Science, vol.26, no.2, July1991, pp.181-96;Andrew Scott, Fading Loyalties: The Australian Labor Party and the Working Class,,Pluto Press, 1991;Dean Jaensch, The Hawke/Keating Hijack: The ALP in Transition,Allen and Unwin,, 1989. Google Scholar

53.R. Neil Massey, ‘A century of labourism, 1891-1993: An historical interpretation’, Labour History, no.66, May1994, pp.45-71. Google Scholar

54.Carol Johnson, The Labor Legacy: Curtin, Chifley, Whitlam, Hawke,Allen and Unwin,, 1989, pp.1-2. Google Scholar

55.Terry Irving, ‘The roots of parliamentary socialism in Australia, 1850-1920’, Labour History, no.67, November1994, p.102; see alsoTerry Irving, ‘Labourism: A political genealogy’, Labour History, vol.66, May1994, pp.1-13. Google Scholar

56.Peter Beilharz, Transforming Labor: Labour Tradition and the Labor Decade in Australia,Cambridge University Press,, 1994, p.5. Google Scholar

57.Beilharz, Transforming Labor, p.51. Google Scholar

58.Terry Irving, ‘Editorial’, Labour History, no.59, November1990, pp.v-vii;Verity Burgmann, ‘The strange death of labour history’, inBob Carret al, Bede Nairn and Labor History(Labor History Essays, vol. 3),, 1991, pp.69-81. See howeverRaelene Frances andBruce Scates, ‘Is labour history dead? The verdict in 1992’, Australian Historical Studies, no.100, April1993, pp.470-82;Ann Curthoys, ‘Labour history and cultural studies’, Labour History, no.67, 1994, pp.12-13. The estimated figures, based on my analysis of the journal’s contents, are: January 1962-November 1977 (51/214 or 24 per cent); March 1978-November 1993 (36/223 or 16 per cent). Google Scholar

59.Frank Bongiorno, ‘“Real solemn history” and its discontents: Australian political history and the challenge of social history’, Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol.56, no.1, March2010, p.19. Google Scholar

60.SeeSean Scalmer, ‘The rise of the insider: Memoirs and diaries in recent Australian political history’, Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol.56, no.1, pp.82-104. Google Scholar

61.See the chapters byTerry Irving andAndrew Wells in Terry Irving (ed.), Challenges to Labour History,University of New South Wales Press,, 1994;Nick Dyrenfurth, ‘Rethinking Labor tradition: Synthesising discourse and experience’, Labour History, no.90, May2006, pp.184-85;Neville Kirk, Comrades and Cousins: Globalization, Workers and Labour Movements in Britain, the USA and Australia from the 1880s to 1914,Merlin Press,, 2003;Neville Kirk, ‘“Australians for Australia”: The Right, the Labor Party and contested loyalties to nation and empire in Australia,1917 to the early 1930s’, Labour History, no.91, November2006, pp.95-111. Google Scholar

62.Nick Dyrenfurth, ‘“Never hitherto seen outside of a zoo or a menagerie”: The language of Australian politics’, Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol.56, no.1, March2010, vol.56, no.1, pp.38-54. Google Scholar

64.Bongiorno, ‘Australian political history and the challenge of social history’, p.20. Google Scholar

65.Frank Bongiorno, The People’s Party: Victorian Labor and the Radical Tradition, 1875-1914,Melbourne University Press,, 1996, p.5. See alsoFrank Bongiorno, ‘Labourism’, inGraeme Davison,John Hirst andStuart Macintyre(eds), Oxford Companion to Australian History,Oxford University Press,, 1998, p.374. Google Scholar

66.Ibid, p.9. Google Scholar

67.AlsoBruce Scates, A New Australia: Citizenship, Radicalism and the First Republic,Cambridge University Press,, 1997. Google Scholar

68.Sean Scalmer, ‘Being practical in early and contemporary Labor politics: A labourist critique’, Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol.43, no.3, 1997, pp.301-11. Google Scholar

69.Jacqueline Dickenson, Renegades and Rats: Betrayal and the Remaking of Radical Organisations in Britain and Australia, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, 2006. See also,Mark Hearn, ‘Cultivating an Australian sentiment: John Christian Watson’s narrative of white nationalism’, National Identities, vol.9, no.4, 2007, pp.351-68. Google Scholar

70.See, in particular,John Iremonger, ‘Rats’, inJohn Faulkner andStuart Macintyre, (eds), True Believers: The Story of the Federal Parliamentary Labor Party,Allen & Unwin,, 2001. Google Scholar

71.Sean Scalmer andTerry Irving, ‘Labour intellectuals in Australia: Modes, traditions, generations, transformations’, International Review of Social History, vol.50, no.1, April, 2005, pp.1-26;Sean Scalmer andTerry Irving, ‘Australian labour intellectuals: An introduction’, Labour History, no.77, November1999, pp.1-10. Google Scholar

72.Nick Dyrenfurth, Heroes and Villains: The Rise and Fall of the Early Australian Labor Party,Australian Scholarly Publishing,, 2010. See also his twin-chapters inNick Dyrenfurth andPaul Strangio(eds), Confusion: The Making of the Australian Two-Party System,Melbourne University Press,, 2009. Google Scholar

73.Joy Damousi, Women Come Rally: Communism, Socialism and Gender in Australia 1890-1955,Oxford University Press,, 1994;Stuart Macintyre, The Reds: The Communist Party of Australia from Origins to Illegality,Allen and Unwin,, 1998. Google Scholar

74.Marilyn Lake, ‘Labour history and the constitution of political subjectivity’, inTerry Irving(ed.), Challenges to Labour History,University of New South Wales Press,, 1994, p.79;Kate Murphy, ‘Feminism and political history’, Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol.56, no.1, 2010, p.21. Google Scholar

75.Neville Kirk, Comrades and Cousins;James Bennett, ‘Rats and Revolutionaries’: The Labour Movement in Australia and New Zealand 1890-1940,University of Otago Press,, 2004;Robin Archer, Why is there No Labor Party in the United States?,Princeton University Press,, 2007. See alsoAndrew Scott, Running on Empty: Modernising the British and Australian Labour Parties,Pluto Press,, 2000. Surveys include:Terry Irving andAllen Seager, ‘Labour and politics in Canada and Australia: Towards a comparativist approach to developments to l960’, Labour History, no.71, November1996, pp.239-77;Leighton James andRay Markey, ‘Class and labour: The British Labour Party and the Australian Labor Party compared’, Labour History, no.90, May2006, pp.23-43;Ray Markey, ‘An antipodean phenomenon? Comparing the labo(u)r party in New Zealand and Australia’, Labour History, no.95, November2008, pp.69-96.Erik Olssen andBruce Scates, ‘Class formation and political change: A trans-Tasman dialogue’, Labour History, no.95, November2008, pp.3-24. Google Scholar

76.Michael Hogan, Local Labor: A History of the Labor Party in Glebe, 1891-2003,Federation Press,, 2004;Tony Harris, “‘Primal Socialist Innocence and the Fall”?: the ALP Left in Leichhardt Municipality in the 1980s’, Labour History, no.86, May2004, pp.53-73;Rodney Cavalier, ‘The Australian Labor Party at branch level: Guildford, Hunters Hill and Panania Branches in the 1950s’inGough Whitlamet al, A Century of Social Change,Pluto Press,, 1992, p.93;Colin Cleary, Bendigo Labor: The Maintenance of Traditions in a Regional City,C. Cleary,, 1999;Colin Cleary, Ballarat Labor: From Miner Hesitancy to Golden Age,C. Cleary,, 2007. Google Scholar

77.Bongiorno, ‘Australian political history and the challenge of social history’, p.18;Terry Irving, The Southern Tree of Liberty: The Democratic Movement in New South Wales before 1856,The Federation Press,, 2006. Google Scholar

78.Bobbie Oliver, Unity is Strength: A History of the Australian Labor Party and the Trades and Labor Council in Western Australia, 1899-1999,,API Network, Australia Research Institute, Curtin University, 2003;Brian Costar,Peter Love andPaul Strangio(eds), The Great Labor Schism: A Retrospective,Scribe,, 2005;Ross McMullin, So Monstrous a Travesty: Chris Watson and the World’s First National Labour Government,Scribe,, 2004;David Day, Andrew Fisher: Prime Minister of Australia,Harper Collins Australia,, 2008, pp.512;.Peter Bastian, Andrew Fisher: An Underestimated Man,University of New South Wales Press,, 2009;Edward W. Humphreys, Andrew Fisher: The Forgotten Man,Sports and Editorial Services Australia,, 2008. Google Scholar

79.See, however,Michael Hogan, ‘Template for a Labor faction: The Industrial Section and the Industrial Vigilance Council of the NSW Labor Party, 1916-19’, Labour History, no.96, May2009, pp.79-100;Nick Martin, ‘Bucking the machine: Clarrie Martin and the NSW Socialisation Units 1929-35’, Labour History, no.93, November2007, pp.177-96. Google Scholar

80.See, for instance,Julie Holbrook Tolley, ‘“Gustav got the winery and Sophie got the soup tureen”: The contribution of women to the Barossa Valley wine industry, 1836-2003’, History Australia, vol.2, no.3, December2005, 86.1-86.8, available athttp://publications.epress.monash.edu/doi/full/10.2104/ha050086?cookieSet=1 Google Scholar

81.Two general histories of the ALP are scheduled for release:Tom Bramble andRick Kuhn, Labor’s Conflict: Big Business, Workers and the Politics of Class,Cambridge University Press,, 2010, andNick Dyrenfurth andFrank Bongiorno, A Little History of the Australian Labor Party,University of New South Wales Press,, 2011. See alsoNick Dyrenfurth, ‘It’s the culture, stupid!’, inNick Dyrenfurth andTim Soutphommasane(eds), All That’s Left: What Labor Should Stand For,University of New South Wales Press,, 2010. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Dyrenfurth, Nick