Labour History

Social Movements, Internationalism and the Cold War: Perspectives on Labour History

Labour History (2016), 111, (1), 1–9.


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1.Odd Arne Westad, “The Cold War and the International History of the Twentieth Century,”inCambridge History of the Cold War, vol. 1, Origins, ed.Melvyn P. Leffler andOdd Arne Westad(:Cambridge University Press, 2010), 3. Google Scholar

2.On Orwell and the origins of the term, seeibid, 3; on Lippman, seeDavid C. Engerman, “Ideology and Origins of the Cold War, 1917–1962,”inLeffler andWestad, Cambridge History of the Cold War, vol. 1, Origins, 38. Google Scholar

3.For Australia, seeDavid Lowe, Menzies and the Great World Struggle: Australia’s Cold War 1948–54(:UNSW Press, 1999), 13. Google Scholar

4.Holger Nehring, “What was the Cold War?” English Historical Review 127, no. 527(August2012):920–49. Google Scholar

5.Ann Curthoys andJohn Merritt, eds, Society Communism and Culture: Australia’s First Cold War, 1945–53, vol. 1(:Allen & Unwin, 1984);Ann Curthoys andJohn Merritt, eds, Better Dead than Red: Australia’s First Cold War, 1945–59, vol. 2(:Allen & Unwin, 1986). Google Scholar

6.Nehring, “What was the Cold War?” Google Scholar

7.SeeWestad, “The Cold War,” 11. Google Scholar

8.Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation, “European Nuclear Disarmament: An Appeal for Action,” Security Dialogue 11, no. 2(1980):110. Google Scholar

9.This paragraph paraphrases part ofStuart Macintyre, “Communist Internationalism in the Cold War: The Australian Experience”(paper presented to Labour Internationalism,Social Movements and the Cold War Symposium, La Trobe University, July2016). Google Scholar

10.Robert McArthur, “Christ and the Cold War: An Exploration of the Political Activism of the Reverends Frank Hartley, Alfred Dickie and Victor James, 1942–1972”(Ph.D. thesis,University of Melbourne, 2007), cited inMacintyre, “Communist Internationalism.” Google Scholar

11.Phillip Deery, “War on Peace: Menzies, the Cold War and the 1953 Convention on Peace and War,” Australian Historical Studies 34, no. 122(2003):248–69;Ralph Summy andMalcolm Saunders, “The 1959 Melbourne Peace Congress: Culmination of Anti-Communism in Australia in the 1950s,”inCurthoys andMerritt, Better Dead than Red, 74–95. Google Scholar

12.Macintyre, “Communist Internationalism,”quotingJ. D. Blake, “Party Tasks in the Struggle for Peace,” Communist Review, no. 109(September1950):643–52; see alsoRobin Gollan, Revolutionaries and Reformists: Communism and the Australian Labour Movement 1920–1955(:ANU Press, 1975), 263. Google Scholar

13.L. J. Louis, “‘Operation Alien’ and the Cold War in Australia, 1950–53,” Labour History, no. 62(May1992):1–18;Tom Sheridan, Australia’s Own Cold War: The Waterfront under Menzies(:Melbourne University Press, 2006);Gollan, Revolutionaries and Reformists. Google Scholar

14.Frank Cain andFrank Farrell, “Menzies’ War on the Communist Party, 1949–51,”inCurthoys andMerritt, Society Communism and Culture, 109–34;George Williams, “The Suppression of Communism by Force of Law: Australia in the Early 1950s,” Australian Journal of Politics and History 42, no. 2(1996):220–40. See also the special issue on the 1951 anti-Communist referendum ofAustralian Historical Studies 44, no. 1(2013). Google Scholar

16.Some examples of a large and growing literature on the cultural Cold War areWalter Hixson, Parting the Curtain: Propaganda, Culture and the Cold War 1945–61(:Macmillan, 1997);Peter Romijn,Giles Scott-Smith andJoe Segal, Divided Dreamworlds? The Cultural Cold War in East and West(:Amsterdam University Press, 2012);David McKnight, “Australian Film and the Cultural Cold War,” Media International Australia, Incorporating Culture & Policy, no. 111(May2004), 118–30; another dimension can be seen inAlice Garner andDiane Kirkby, “‘Never a Machine for Propaganda’?: The Australian-American Fulbright Program and Australia’s Cold War,” Australian Historical Studies 44, no. 1(March2013), 117–33. Google Scholar

17.Mary Dudziak, Cold War, Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy(:Princeton University Press, 2011). Google Scholar

18.Nancy L. Clark andWilliam H. Worger South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid, 2nd ed. (:Routledge, 2013), 48–52. Google Scholar

19.Doug Jordan, Conflict in the Unions: The Communist Party of Australia, Politics and the Trade Union Movement, 1945–60(:Resistance Books, 2013);Sue Taffe, “The Cairns Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Advancement League and the Community of the Left,” Labour History, no. 97(November2009):149–67;Sue Taffe, “Wharfies and Communists: The Genesis of the Cairns Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Advancement League,”inLabour History in the New Century, ed.B. Oliver(:Black Swan Press, Curtin University of Technology, 2009), 155–65;Diane Kirkby, Voices from the Ships:Australia’s Seafarers and Their Union(:UNSW Press, 2008). Google Scholar

20.See alsoJulie Kimber, “‘That’s Not Right’: Indigenous Politics, Dexter Daniels and 1968,”inLabour History and its People: The 12th Biennial National Labour History Conference, Australian National University 15–17 September 2011, ed.Melanie Nolan(:Australian Society for the Study of Labour History, Canberra Region Branch, 2011), 153–64. Google Scholar

21.These two meanings are registered in separate definitions for “internationalism” offered in theOxford English Dictionary.See“internationalism, n.,” OED Online,Oxford University Press, accessed October 2016, Google Scholar

22.Macintyre, “Communist Internationalism.” Google Scholar

23.Stuart Macintyre, The Reds: The Communist Party of Australia from Origins to Illegality(:Allen & Unwin, 1998), 415. Google Scholar

24.Interview with Pat Geraghty and other SUA officials inKirkby, Voices from the Ships. Google Scholar

25.E. V. Elliott, Seamen’s Journal, July1977, quoted inKirkby, Voices from the Ships, 105. Google Scholar

26.For example,Sean Scalmer, Gandhi in the West: The Mahatma and the Rise of Radical Protest(:Cambridge University Press, 2011);Joseph Kip Kosek, Acts of Conscience: Christian Nonviolence and Modern American Democracy(:Columbia University Press, 2009);Frank Zelko, Make It a Green Peace! The Rise of Countercultural Environmentalism(:Oxford University Press, 2013);Sean Scalmer, Dissent Events: Protest, the Media, and the Political Gimmick in Australia(:UNSW Press, 2002). Google Scholar

27.Early and influential attempts to articulate the “new” versus “old” division include:Alain Touraine, The Voice and the Eye(:Cambridge University Press, 1981);Claus Offe, “New Social Movements: Challenging the Boundaries of Institutional Politics,” Social Research 52, no. 4(1985):817–68;Alberto Melucci, Nomads of the Present: Social Movements and Individual Needs in Contemporary Society(:Hutchinson Radius, 1989). Google Scholar

28.For criticisms:Craig Calhoun, The Roots of Radicalism: Tradition, the Public Sphere, and Early Nineteenth-Century Social Movements(:University of Chicago Press, 2012) andVerity Burgmann, “From Syndicalism to Seattle: Class and the Politics of Identity,” International Labor and Working-Class History, no. 67(Spring2005):1–21. One index of the continuing recognition of the “new” versus “old” movement distinction is its central presence in recent textbooks and overviews, egGreg Martin, Understanding Social Movements(:Routledge, 2015), ch. 4. Google Scholar

29.An argument developed in:Sean Scalmer, “Social Movement Studies and the Nature of Contemporary Movements: New Challenges, Enduring Habits,” Australian Journal of Political Science 50, no. 4(December2015):761–71. Google Scholar

30.One expression of this collective challenge is a new book series, “Palgrave Studies in the History of Social Movements,” Palgrave Macmillan, accessed October2016, Another is a scholarly journal dedicated to the subject, Moving the Social: Journal of Social History and the History of Social Movements,Institut für Soziale Bewegungen, accessed October2016, Google Scholar

31.Glenda Sluga, “Rediscovering Internationalism,” Current History 113, no. 766(Nov2014):311. Google Scholar

32. Ibid. Google Scholar

33.For recent studies of global social movements that give special attention to mobilisations emphasising economic inequality, see for example:Jackie Smith andDawn Wiest, Social Movements in the World-System: The Politics of Crisis and Transformation(:Russell Sage Foundation, 2012);Donatella della Porta,Massimiliano Andretta,Lorenzo Mosca andHerbert Reiter, Globalization from Below: Transnational Activists and Protest Networks(:University of Minnesota Press, 2006);Savyasaachi andRavi Kumar, eds, Social Movements: Transformative Shifts and Turning Points(:Routledge, 2014);Verity Burgmann, Globalization and Labour in the Twenty-First Century(:Routledge, 2016). Google Scholar

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Author details

Kirkby, Diane

Scalmer, Sean