Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies

Representations of Disability in 1960s Greek Film Noirs

The Secret of the Red Mantle and The Fear

Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies (2020), 14, (3), 281–299.

Abstract

Using a critical psychoanalytic framework, the article examines representations of disability in two Greek film noirs from the 1960s, namely The Secret of the Red Mantle and The Fear. While the films are in no way unambiguously progressive, they allow for an anti-ableist reading and therefore challenge stereotypical representations of disability in 1960s Greece.

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Works Cited

Atzakas, G. “I Istoria Ton Kofon: Prosopa Kai Gegonota Pou Simadepsan Ton Agona Gia Tin Aftonomia Tis Koinotitas Ton Kofon”/“The History of the Deaf: People and Events that Marked the Struggle for Autonomy of the Deaf Community.” Neatonamea.blogspot (Enet.gr) (2010). Web. 15 Oct. 2019. Google Scholar

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Beizer, Janet. Ventriloquized Bodies: Narratives of Hysteria in Nineteenth-Century France. London: Cornell UP, 1994. Print. Google Scholar

The Big Sleep. Dir. Howard Hawks. Warner Bros, 1946. DVD. Google Scholar

Bilton, Alan. “Essay: Sunrise, America, and the Other Side” (2016). Web. 28 Sep. 2019. Google Scholar

Boyd, Nolan. “The Warped Mirror: The Reflection of the Ableist Stare in David Lynch’s The Elephant Man.” Disability & Society 31.10 (2016): 1321-32. Print. Google Scholar

Bracher, Mark, with Marchall W. Alcorn Jr, Ronald. J. Corthell, and Françoise Massardier-Kenney, eds. Lacanian Theory of Discourse: Subject, Structure, and Society. New York: New York UP, 1994. Print. Google Scholar

Brintnall, Kent L. “Psychoanalysis.” The Routledge Companion to Religion and Film. Ed. John Lyden. New York: Routledge, 2009. 292-309. Print. Google Scholar

Carboni, Camilla. Film Spectatorship and Subjectivity: Semiotics, Complications, Satisfactions. 2007. Stellenbosch University, MA thesis. Web. 13 Oct. 2019. Google Scholar

Chaudhuri, Shohini. Feminist Film Theorists: Laura Mulvey, Kaja Silverman, Teresa de Lauretis, Barbara Creed. New York: Routledge, 2006. Print. Google Scholar

Copjec, Joan. Read My Desire: Lacan Against the Historicists. London: MIT P, 1994. Print. Google Scholar

Cowie, Elizabeth. Representing the Woman: Cinema and Psychoanalysis. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 1997. Print. Google Scholar

Davidson, Michael. “Phantom Limbs: Film Noir and the Disabled Body.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 9.1-2 (2003): 57-77. Print. Google Scholar

Davis, Lennard J. “Nude Venuses, Medusa’s Body, and Phantom Limbs: Disability and Visuality.” The Body and Physical Difference: Discourses of Disability. Ed. David T. Mitchell and Sharon L. Snyder. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1997: 51-70. Print. Google Scholar

Doane, Mary Ann. The Desire to Desire: The Woman’s Film of the 1940s. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1987. Print. Google Scholar

Efialtis/Nightmare. Dir. Erricos Andreou. Erricos Andreou, 1961. TV recording. Google Scholar

Eglima Sto Kolonaki/Crime in Kolonaki. Dir. Tzanis Aliferis. Tzal Film, 1959. DVD. Google Scholar

Evans, Dylan. An Introductory Dictionary of Lacanian Psychoanalysis. London: Routledge, 2006. Print. Google Scholar

Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its Discontents. 1930. New York: Norton, 2010. Print. Google Scholar

Freud, Sigmund. Moses and Monotheism. 1939. Eastford, Connecticut: Martino Fine Books, 2010. Print. Google Scholar

Fyka, Georgia. “I Istoria tou Anapirikou Kinimatos stin Ellada”/“The History of the Disability Movement in Greece.” Tvxs.gr (2012). Web. 30 May 2019. Google Scholar

Garland-Thomson, Rosemarie. “Integrating Disability, Transforming Feminist Theory.” The Disability Studies Reader. Ed. Lennard J. Davis. New York: Routledge, 2006. 257-73. Print. Google Scholar

Gledhill, Christine. “Pleasurable Negotiations.” Feminist Film Theory: A Reader. Ed. Sue Thornham. New York: New York UP, 1999. 166-79. Print. Google Scholar

Grosz, Elizabeth. Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1994. Print. Google Scholar

Hewitson, Owen. “What Does Lacan Say About… Jouissance?” LacanOnline.com (2015). Web. 28 Sep. 2019. Google Scholar

I Maria tis Siopis/Maria of Silence. Dir. Giannis Dalianidis. Finos Film, 1973. DVD. Google Scholar

Ι Soferina/Lady Driver. Dir. Alekos Sakellarios. Damaskinos-Mihailidis, 1964. DVD. Google Scholar

Karalis, Vrasidas. A History of Greek Cinema. London: Bloomsbury, 2012. Print. Google Scholar

Kuhn, Annette. “Women’s Genres: Melodrama, Soap Opera and Theory.” Feminist Film Theory: A Reader. Ed. Sue Thornham. New York: New York UP, 1999. 146-58. Print. Google Scholar

Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan: On Feminine Sexuality, the Limits of Love and Knowledge (Encore), Vol. Book XX. New York: Norton, 2007 (1972-73). Print. Google Scholar

Lolitas of Athens/Satan in Blond. Dir. Giorgos Papakostas. Faros Film, 1965. TV recording. Google Scholar

McGowan, Todd. Psychoanalytic Film Theory and the Rules of the Game. New York: Bloomsbury, 2015. Print. Google Scholar

McRuer, Robert. “Compulsory Able-Bodiedness and Queer/Disabled Existence.” The Disability Studies Reader. Ed. Lennard J. Davis. New York: Routledge, 2013. 369-78. Print. Google Scholar

Metz, Christian. The Imaginary Signifier: Psychoanalysis and the Cinema. 1975. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1982. Print. Google Scholar

Mitchell, Juliet. Psychoanalysis and Feminism. 1974. London: Penguin, 1990. Print. Google Scholar

Mitchell, Juliet. Psychoanalysis and Feminism: A Radical Reassessment of Freudian Psychoanalysis, rev. ed. New York: Basic Books, 2000. Print. Google Scholar

Mixanitouxronou. “O Anestis Vlahos Ehase to Mati tou…”/“Anestis Vlahos Lost His Eye Due to Medical Negligence… .” Web. 11 Dec. 2018. Google Scholar

Mollow, Anna. “Criphystemologies: What Disability Theory Needs to Know about Hysteria.” Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies 8.2 (2014): 185-201. Print. Google Scholar

Mollow, Anna. The Disability Drive. 2015. Berkeley, California U, PhD thesis. Print. Google Scholar

Morley, David. Television, Audiences and Cultural Studies. 1992. London: Routledge, 2005. Print. Google Scholar

Myers, Tony. Slavoj Žižek. New York: Routledge, 2003. Print. Google Scholar

Nasio, Juan-David. Five Lessons on the Psychoanalytic Theory of Jacques Lacan. Albany: State U of New York P, 1998. Print. Google Scholar

O Anthropos tou Trenou/The Man of the Train. Dir. Dinos Dimopoulos. Olympos Film, 1958. TV recording. Google Scholar

O Fovos/The Fear. Dir. Kostas Manoussakis. Damaskinos-Mihailidis, 1966. TV recording. Google Scholar

“O Fovos.” Tainiothiki tis Ellados. Web. 11 Dec. 2018. Google Scholar

Oi Ehthroi/The Enemies. Dir. Dinos Dimopoulos. Finos Film, 1965. DVD. Google Scholar

Penley, Constance. The Future of an Illusion: Feminism, Film, and Psychoanalysis. Minneapolis: Minnesota UP, 1989. Print. Google Scholar

Phillips, Nelson, with Thomas B. Lawrence, and Cynthia Hardy. “Discourse and Institutions.” The Academy of Management Review 29.4 (2004): 635-52. Web. 9 Oct. 2019. Google Scholar

“Pleasure Principle.” Wikipedia.org. Web. 29 Sep. 2019. Google Scholar

Pligomenes Kardies/Wounded Hearts. Dir. Apostolos Tegopoulos. Klak Film, 1963. DVD. Google Scholar

Potter, Jonathan. “Discourse Analysis and Constructionist Approaches: Theoretical Background.” Handbook of Qualitative Methods for Psychology and the Social Sciences. Ed. J. T. E. Richardson. Leicester: British Psychological Society, 1996. 125-40. Print. Google Scholar

Psycho. Dir. Alfred Hitchcock. Shamley Productions, 1960. DVD. Google Scholar

Pyretos stin Asphalto/Asphalt Fever. Dir. Dinos Dimopoulos. Finos Film, 1967. DVD. Google Scholar

Rose, Gillian. Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to Researching with Visual Materials. London: Sage, 2001. Print. Google Scholar

Rose, Jacqueline. “Introduction II.” Feminine Sexuality: Jacques Lacan and the Ecole Freudienne. Ed. Juliet Mitchell and Jacqueline Rose. New York: Norton, 1983. 27-58. Print. Google Scholar

Shildrick, Margrit. Dangerous Discourses of Disability, Subjectivity and Sexuality. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2009. Print. Google Scholar

Silverman, Kaja. The Acoustic Mirror: The Female Voice in Psychoanalysis and Cinema. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1988. Print. Google Scholar

Silverman, Kaja. Male Subjectivity at the Margins. New York: Routledge, 1992. Print. Google Scholar

The Spiral Staircase. Dir. Robert Siodmak. RKO, 1946. DVD. Google Scholar

Stavrakakis, Yannis. Lacan and the Political. London: Routledge, 1999. Print. Google Scholar

To Koritsi tou 17/The Girl of Number 17. Dir. Petros Lykas. Lykas, 1969. TV recording. Google Scholar

To Mystiko tou Kokkinou Mandya/The Secret of the Red Mantle. Dir. Kostas Fotinos. Anotati Scholi Kinimatografou, 1960. TV recording. Google Scholar

Torfing, Jacob. New Theories of Discourse: Laclau, Mouffe and Žižek. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 1999. Print. Google Scholar

Tzoumerkas, Syllas. “O Syllas Tzoumerkas Grafei gia ton Fovo tou Kosta Manoussaki”/“Syllas Tzoumerkas Writes about Kostas Manoussakis’s The Fear.” Flix.gr (2017). Web. 27 May 2019. Google Scholar

Vamvakidou, Ifigeneia, “Anaparastaseis Atomon me Anapiria”/“Representations of People with Disability.” Web. 30 May 2019. Google Scholar

Wilton, Robert D. “Locating Physical Disability in Freudian and Lacanian Psychoanalysis: Problems and Prospects.” Social & Cultural Geography 4.3 (2003): 369-89. Print. Google Scholar

Žižek, Slavoj. Iraq: The Borrowed Kettle. London: Verso, 2004. Print. Google Scholar

Žižek, Slavoj. Looking Awry: An Introduction to Jacques Lacan through Popular Culture. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991. Print. Google Scholar

Žižek, Slavoj. The Plague of Fantasies. London: Verso, 1997. Print. Google Scholar

Žižek, Slavoj. The Sublime Object of Ideology. Rpt. London: Verso, 2008. Print. Google Scholar

Žižek, Slavoj. Tarrying With the Negative: Kant, Hegel, and the Critique of Ideology. Durham: Duke UP, 1993. Print. Google Scholar

Atzakas, G. “I Istoria Ton Kofon: Prosopa Kai Gegonota Pou Simadepsan Ton Agona Gia Tin Aftonomia Tis Koinotitas Ton Kofon”/“The History of the Deaf: People and Events that Marked the Struggle for Autonomy of the Deaf Community.” Neatonamea.blogspot (Enet.gr) (2010). Web. 15 Oct. 2019. Google Scholar

Baynton, Douglas. “‘A Silent Exile on This Earth’: The Metaphorical Construction of Deafness in the Nineteenth Century.” The Disability Studies Reader. Ed. Lennard J. Davis. New York: Routledge, 2006. 33-48. Print. Google Scholar

Beizer, Janet. Ventriloquized Bodies: Narratives of Hysteria in Nineteenth-Century France. London: Cornell UP, 1994. Print. Google Scholar

The Big Sleep. Dir. Howard Hawks. Warner Bros, 1946. DVD. Google Scholar

Bilton, Alan. “Essay: Sunrise, America, and the Other Side” (2016). Web. 28 Sep. 2019. Google Scholar

Boyd, Nolan. “The Warped Mirror: The Reflection of the Ableist Stare in David Lynch’s The Elephant Man.” Disability & Society 31.10 (2016): 1321-32. Print. Google Scholar

Bracher, Mark, with Marchall W. Alcorn Jr, Ronald. J. Corthell, and Françoise Massardier-Kenney, eds. Lacanian Theory of Discourse: Subject, Structure, and Society. New York: New York UP, 1994. Print. Google Scholar

Brintnall, Kent L. “Psychoanalysis.” The Routledge Companion to Religion and Film. Ed. John Lyden. New York: Routledge, 2009. 292-309. Print. Google Scholar

Carboni, Camilla. Film Spectatorship and Subjectivity: Semiotics, Complications, Satisfactions. 2007. Stellenbosch University, MA thesis. Web. 13 Oct. 2019. Google Scholar

Chaudhuri, Shohini. Feminist Film Theorists: Laura Mulvey, Kaja Silverman, Teresa de Lauretis, Barbara Creed. New York: Routledge, 2006. Print. Google Scholar

Copjec, Joan. Read My Desire: Lacan Against the Historicists. London: MIT P, 1994. Print. Google Scholar

Cowie, Elizabeth. Representing the Woman: Cinema and Psychoanalysis. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 1997. Print. Google Scholar

Davidson, Michael. “Phantom Limbs: Film Noir and the Disabled Body.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 9.1-2 (2003): 57-77. Print. Google Scholar

Davis, Lennard J. “Nude Venuses, Medusa’s Body, and Phantom Limbs: Disability and Visuality.” The Body and Physical Difference: Discourses of Disability. Ed. David T. Mitchell and Sharon L. Snyder. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1997: 51-70. Print. Google Scholar

Doane, Mary Ann. The Desire to Desire: The Woman’s Film of the 1940s. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1987. Print. Google Scholar

Efialtis/Nightmare. Dir. Erricos Andreou. Erricos Andreou, 1961. TV recording. Google Scholar

Eglima Sto Kolonaki/Crime in Kolonaki. Dir. Tzanis Aliferis. Tzal Film, 1959. DVD. Google Scholar

Evans, Dylan. An Introductory Dictionary of Lacanian Psychoanalysis. London: Routledge, 2006. Print. Google Scholar

Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its Discontents. 1930. New York: Norton, 2010. Print. Google Scholar

Freud, Sigmund. Moses and Monotheism. 1939. Eastford, Connecticut: Martino Fine Books, 2010. Print. Google Scholar

Fyka, Georgia. “I Istoria tou Anapirikou Kinimatos stin Ellada”/“The History of the Disability Movement in Greece.” Tvxs.gr (2012). Web. 30 May 2019. Google Scholar

Garland-Thomson, Rosemarie. “Integrating Disability, Transforming Feminist Theory.” The Disability Studies Reader. Ed. Lennard J. Davis. New York: Routledge, 2006. 257-73. Print. Google Scholar

Gledhill, Christine. “Pleasurable Negotiations.” Feminist Film Theory: A Reader. Ed. Sue Thornham. New York: New York UP, 1999. 166-79. Print. Google Scholar

Grosz, Elizabeth. Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1994. Print. Google Scholar

Hewitson, Owen. “What Does Lacan Say About… Jouissance?” LacanOnline.com (2015). Web. 28 Sep. 2019. Google Scholar

I Maria tis Siopis/Maria of Silence. Dir. Giannis Dalianidis. Finos Film, 1973. DVD. Google Scholar

Ι Soferina/Lady Driver. Dir. Alekos Sakellarios. Damaskinos-Mihailidis, 1964. DVD. Google Scholar

Karalis, Vrasidas. A History of Greek Cinema. London: Bloomsbury, 2012. Print. Google Scholar

Kuhn, Annette. “Women’s Genres: Melodrama, Soap Opera and Theory.” Feminist Film Theory: A Reader. Ed. Sue Thornham. New York: New York UP, 1999. 146-58. Print. Google Scholar

Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan: On Feminine Sexuality, the Limits of Love and Knowledge (Encore), Vol. Book XX. New York: Norton, 2007 (1972-73). Print. Google Scholar

Lolitas of Athens/Satan in Blond. Dir. Giorgos Papakostas. Faros Film, 1965. TV recording. Google Scholar

McGowan, Todd. Psychoanalytic Film Theory and the Rules of the Game. New York: Bloomsbury, 2015. Print. Google Scholar

McRuer, Robert. “Compulsory Able-Bodiedness and Queer/Disabled Existence.” The Disability Studies Reader. Ed. Lennard J. Davis. New York: Routledge, 2013. 369-78. Print. Google Scholar

Metz, Christian. The Imaginary Signifier: Psychoanalysis and the Cinema. 1975. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1982. Print. Google Scholar

Mitchell, Juliet. Psychoanalysis and Feminism. 1974. London: Penguin, 1990. Print. Google Scholar

Mitchell, Juliet. Psychoanalysis and Feminism: A Radical Reassessment of Freudian Psychoanalysis, rev. ed. New York: Basic Books, 2000. Print. Google Scholar

Mixanitouxronou. “O Anestis Vlahos Ehase to Mati tou…”/“Anestis Vlahos Lost His Eye Due to Medical Negligence… .” Web. 11 Dec. 2018. Google Scholar

Mollow, Anna. “Criphystemologies: What Disability Theory Needs to Know about Hysteria.” Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies 8.2 (2014): 185-201. Print. Google Scholar

Mollow, Anna. The Disability Drive. 2015. Berkeley, California U, PhD thesis. Print. Google Scholar

Morley, David. Television, Audiences and Cultural Studies. 1992. London: Routledge, 2005. Print. Google Scholar

Myers, Tony. Slavoj Žižek. New York: Routledge, 2003. Print. Google Scholar

Nasio, Juan-David. Five Lessons on the Psychoanalytic Theory of Jacques Lacan. Albany: State U of New York P, 1998. Print. Google Scholar

O Anthropos tou Trenou/The Man of the Train. Dir. Dinos Dimopoulos. Olympos Film, 1958. TV recording. Google Scholar

O Fovos/The Fear. Dir. Kostas Manoussakis. Damaskinos-Mihailidis, 1966. TV recording. Google Scholar

“O Fovos.” Tainiothiki tis Ellados. Web. 11 Dec. 2018. Google Scholar

Oi Ehthroi/The Enemies. Dir. Dinos Dimopoulos. Finos Film, 1965. DVD. Google Scholar

Penley, Constance. The Future of an Illusion: Feminism, Film, and Psychoanalysis. Minneapolis: Minnesota UP, 1989. Print. Google Scholar

Phillips, Nelson, with Thomas B. Lawrence, and Cynthia Hardy. “Discourse and Institutions.” The Academy of Management Review 29.4 (2004): 635-52. Web. 9 Oct. 2019. Google Scholar

“Pleasure Principle.” Wikipedia.org. Web. 29 Sep. 2019. Google Scholar

Pligomenes Kardies/Wounded Hearts. Dir. Apostolos Tegopoulos. Klak Film, 1963. DVD. Google Scholar

Potter, Jonathan. “Discourse Analysis and Constructionist Approaches: Theoretical Background.” Handbook of Qualitative Methods for Psychology and the Social Sciences. Ed. J. T. E. Richardson. Leicester: British Psychological Society, 1996. 125-40. Print. Google Scholar

Psycho. Dir. Alfred Hitchcock. Shamley Productions, 1960. DVD. Google Scholar

Pyretos stin Asphalto/Asphalt Fever. Dir. Dinos Dimopoulos. Finos Film, 1967. DVD. Google Scholar

Rose, Gillian. Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to Researching with Visual Materials. London: Sage, 2001. Print. Google Scholar

Rose, Jacqueline. “Introduction II.” Feminine Sexuality: Jacques Lacan and the Ecole Freudienne. Ed. Juliet Mitchell and Jacqueline Rose. New York: Norton, 1983. 27-58. Print. Google Scholar

Shildrick, Margrit. Dangerous Discourses of Disability, Subjectivity and Sexuality. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2009. Print. Google Scholar

Silverman, Kaja. The Acoustic Mirror: The Female Voice in Psychoanalysis and Cinema. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1988. Print. Google Scholar

Silverman, Kaja. Male Subjectivity at the Margins. New York: Routledge, 1992. Print. Google Scholar

The Spiral Staircase. Dir. Robert Siodmak. RKO, 1946. DVD. Google Scholar

Stavrakakis, Yannis. Lacan and the Political. London: Routledge, 1999. Print. Google Scholar

To Koritsi tou 17/The Girl of Number 17. Dir. Petros Lykas. Lykas, 1969. TV recording. Google Scholar

To Mystiko tou Kokkinou Mandya/The Secret of the Red Mantle. Dir. Kostas Fotinos. Anotati Scholi Kinimatografou, 1960. TV recording. Google Scholar

Torfing, Jacob. New Theories of Discourse: Laclau, Mouffe and Žižek. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 1999. Print. Google Scholar

Tzoumerkas, Syllas. “O Syllas Tzoumerkas Grafei gia ton Fovo tou Kosta Manoussaki”/“Syllas Tzoumerkas Writes about Kostas Manoussakis’s The Fear.” Flix.gr (2017). Web. 27 May 2019. Google Scholar

Vamvakidou, Ifigeneia, “Anaparastaseis Atomon me Anapiria”/“Representations of People with Disability.” Web. 30 May 2019. Google Scholar

Wilton, Robert D. “Locating Physical Disability in Freudian and Lacanian Psychoanalysis: Problems and Prospects.” Social & Cultural Geography 4.3 (2003): 369-89. Print. Google Scholar

Žižek, Slavoj. Iraq: The Borrowed Kettle. London: Verso, 2004. Print. Google Scholar

Žižek, Slavoj. Looking Awry: An Introduction to Jacques Lacan through Popular Culture. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991. Print. Google Scholar

Žižek, Slavoj. The Plague of Fantasies. London: Verso, 1997. Print. Google Scholar

Žižek, Slavoj. The Sublime Object of Ideology. Rpt. London: Verso, 2008. Print. Google Scholar

Žižek, Slavoj. Tarrying With the Negative: Kant, Hegel, and the Critique of Ideology. Durham: Duke UP, 1993. Print. Google Scholar

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Fessas, Nikitas