Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Un reanálisis de los predicados télicos del español

Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (2020), 97, (8), 789–806.

Abstract

El presente artículo se centra en las características y particularidades de los verbos télicos y atélicos del español. Hay bastante acuerdo en su descripción y análisis, aunque aún quedan, en mi opinión, diversos problemas pendientes, que se abordan en el trabajo. Para ello, se analizan tres definiciones distintas y las tres pruebas de determinación más clásicas (a saber, implicación de las formas progresivas, combinación con en x tiempo y durante x tiempo). De hecho, su aplicación no permite establecer una dicotomía tempoaspectual ni valida la idea de que los verbos télicos y los atélicos pertenecen a dos clases claramente delimitadas. Asimismo, si tomamos como criterio los resultados de las pruebas, debemos aceptar la conveniencia de considerar más clases de aspecto léxico que las cuatro (o cinco) que se suelen aplicar.

The present paper focuses on the characteristics and peculiarities of telic and atelic verbs in Spanish. There is a high degree of agreement in the description and analysis of them, although there are still, in my opinion, some pending problems, with which I deal here. For this purpose I use three different definitions and three classic determining tests (implication of the progressive forms, combination with adverbials in x time and for x time). In fact, the application of all of them does not allocate predicates into a clear-cut temporal-aspectual dichotomy; in other words, it does not validate the idea that telic and atelic verbs belong to two classes that are clearly disjunct. It is also seen that, if we take as a criterion the results of the tests, we must accept the convenience of considering more classes of lexical aspect than the four (or five) often used.

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Obras citadas

Albertuz, Francisco Javier, 1995. ‘En torno a la fundamentación lingüística de la Aktionsart’, Verba 22: 285-337. Google Scholar

Aparicio, Juan, Irene Castellón y Marta Coll-Florit, 2013. ‘Hacia un tratamiento computacional del Aktionsart’, Linguamatica 5.2: 65-76. Google Scholar

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Bertinetto, Pier-Marco, 1986. Tempo, aspetto e azione nel verbo italiano (Firenze: Accademia della Crusca). Google Scholar

Bertinetto, Pier-Marco, 1997. Il dominio tempo-aspettuale: Demarcazioni, intersezioni, contrasti (Turín: Rosenberg & Sellier). Google Scholar

Bosque, Ignacio, y Carlos Gutiérrez Rexach, 2009. Fundamentos de sintaxis formal (Madrid: Akal). Google Scholar

Bosque, Ignacio, y Violeta Demonte (coords.), 1999. Gramática descriptiva de la Lengua Española (Madrid: Espasa-Calpe). Google Scholar

Comrie, Bernard, 1976. Aspect. An Introduction to the Study of Verbal Aspect and Related Problems (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Google Scholar

Cuartero Otal, Juan, 2009. ‘Clases aspectuales de verbos de desplazamiento en español’, Verba 36: 255-91. Google Scholar

Cuartero Otal, Juan, 2012. ‘¿Diversas formas de leer y escribir? Un acercamiento a sus Aktionsarten’, en Aspectualidad - Transitividad - Referencialidad: las lenguas románicas en contraste, ed. Valeriano Bellosta von Colbe y Marco García García (Frankfurt: Lang), pp. 15-40. Google Scholar

Cuartero Otal, Juan, y María del Carmen Horno Chéliz, 2011. ‘Estados, estatividad y perífrasis’, en Estudios sobre perífrasis y aspecto, ed. Juan Cuartero Otal, Luis García Fernández y Carsten Sinner (Múnich: peniope), pp. 225-48. Google Scholar

Declerck, Renaat, 1979. ‘Aspect and the Bounded/ Unbounded (Telic/ Atelic) Distinction’, Linguistics 17.9-10: 761-94. Google Scholar

Depraetere, Ilse, 1995. ‘On the Necessity of Distinguishing between (Un)boundedness and (A)telicity’, Linguistics and Philosophy 18.1: 1-19. Google Scholar

Dowty, David, 1979. Word Meaning and Montague Grammar (Dordrecht: Kluwer). Google Scholar

Dowty, David, 1991. ‘Thematic Proto-Roles and Argument Selection’, Language 67.3: 547-619. Google Scholar

DPV, 2006. Diccionario de perífrasis verbales (Madrid: Gredos). Google Scholar

García Fernández, Luis, 2000. La gramática de los complementos temporales (Madrid: Visor). Google Scholar

Garey, Howard B., 1957. ‘Verbal Aspects in French’, Language 33.2: 91-110. Google Scholar

GDLE véase Bosque, Ignacio y Violeta Demonte (coords.) Google Scholar

Havu, Jukka, 1997. La constitución temporal del sintagma verbal en el español moderno (Helsinki: Academia Scientiarum Fennica). Google Scholar

Hay, Jennifer, 1998. ‘The Non-uniformity of Degree Achievements’. Paper Presented at the 72nd Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, New York. Google Scholar

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Jackendoff, Ray, 1996. ‘The Proper Treatment of Measuring Out, Telicity, and Perhaps Even Quantification in English’, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 14: 305-54. Google Scholar

Jaque, Matias, 2014. ‘La expresión de la estatividad en español: niveles de representación y grados de dinamicidad’, Tesis doctoral, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Google Scholar

Kenny, Anthony, 1963. Action, Emotion and Will (Londres: Routledge and Kegan Paul). Google Scholar

Krifka, Manfred, 1992. ‘Thematic Relations as Links between Nominal Reference and Temporal Constitution’, en Lexical Matters, ed. Ivan Sag y Anna Szabolcski (Stanford: CSLI), pp. 29-54. Google Scholar

Levin, Beth, 2000. ‘Aspect, Lexical Semantic Representation, and Argument Expression’, en Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society: General Session and Parasession on Aspect, pp. 413-29. Google Scholar

Lys, Franziska, y Kerry Mommer, 1986. ‘The Problem of Aspectual Verb Classification: A Two-Level Approach’, en CLS 22 (Papers from the General Session at the 22nd Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society), pp. 216-30. Google Scholar

NGLE véase Real Academia Española Google Scholar

Real Academia Española, 2009. Nueva Gramática de la Lengua Española (Madrid: Espasa-Calpe). Google Scholar

Rothstein, Susanne, 2007. ‘Two Puzzles for a Theory of Lexical Aspect: The Case of Semelfactives and Degree Adverbials’, en Event Structures in Linguistic Form and Interpretation, ed. Johannes Dölling, Tatjana Heyde-Zybatow y Martin Schäfer (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter), pp. 175-97. Google Scholar

Rothstein, Susanne, 2008. Structuring Events: A Study in the Semantics of Lexical Aspect (Oxford: Blackwell). Google Scholar

Sasse, Hans-Jürgen, 2002. ‘Recent Activity in the Theory of Aspect: Accomplishments, Achievements, or just non-Progressive State?’, Linguistic Typology 6.2: 199-271. Google Scholar

Smith, Carlota, 1991. The Parameter of Aspect (Dordrecht: Kluwer). Google Scholar

Tenny, Carol, 1992. ‘The Aspectual Interface Hypothesis’, en Lexical Matters, ed. Ivan Sag y Anna Szabolcski (Stanford: CSLI), pp. 1-27. Google Scholar

Vendler, Zeno, 1957. ‘Verbs and Times’, en The Philosophical Review 66.2: 143-60. Google Scholar

Verkuyl, Henk, 1993. A Theory of Aspectuality. The Interaction between Temporal and Atemporal Structure (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Google Scholar

Xiao, Zhongua, y Alexander McEnery, 2005. ‘Situation Aspect: A Two-Level Approach’, Cahiers Chronos 13: 185-200. Google Scholar

Albertuz, Francisco Javier, 1995. ‘En torno a la fundamentación lingüística de la Aktionsart’, Verba 22: 285-337. Google Scholar

Aparicio, Juan, Irene Castellón y Marta Coll-Florit, 2013. ‘Hacia un tratamiento computacional del Aktionsart’, Linguamatica 5.2: 65-76. Google Scholar

Aristóteles, 1973. Obras, edición de F. Samaranch (Madrid: Aguilar). Google Scholar

Bertinetto, Pier-Marco, 1986. Tempo, aspetto e azione nel verbo italiano (Firenze: Accademia della Crusca). Google Scholar

Bertinetto, Pier-Marco, 1997. Il dominio tempo-aspettuale: Demarcazioni, intersezioni, contrasti (Turín: Rosenberg & Sellier). Google Scholar

Bosque, Ignacio, y Carlos Gutiérrez Rexach, 2009. Fundamentos de sintaxis formal (Madrid: Akal). Google Scholar

Bosque, Ignacio, y Violeta Demonte (coords.), 1999. Gramática descriptiva de la Lengua Española (Madrid: Espasa-Calpe). Google Scholar

Comrie, Bernard, 1976. Aspect. An Introduction to the Study of Verbal Aspect and Related Problems (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Google Scholar

Cuartero Otal, Juan, 2009. ‘Clases aspectuales de verbos de desplazamiento en español’, Verba 36: 255-91. Google Scholar

Cuartero Otal, Juan, 2012. ‘¿Diversas formas de leer y escribir? Un acercamiento a sus Aktionsarten’, en Aspectualidad - Transitividad - Referencialidad: las lenguas románicas en contraste, ed. Valeriano Bellosta von Colbe y Marco García García (Frankfurt: Lang), pp. 15-40. Google Scholar

Cuartero Otal, Juan, y María del Carmen Horno Chéliz, 2011. ‘Estados, estatividad y perífrasis’, en Estudios sobre perífrasis y aspecto, ed. Juan Cuartero Otal, Luis García Fernández y Carsten Sinner (Múnich: peniope), pp. 225-48. Google Scholar

Declerck, Renaat, 1979. ‘Aspect and the Bounded/ Unbounded (Telic/ Atelic) Distinction’, Linguistics 17.9-10: 761-94. Google Scholar

Depraetere, Ilse, 1995. ‘On the Necessity of Distinguishing between (Un)boundedness and (A)telicity’, Linguistics and Philosophy 18.1: 1-19. Google Scholar

Dowty, David, 1979. Word Meaning and Montague Grammar (Dordrecht: Kluwer). Google Scholar

Dowty, David, 1991. ‘Thematic Proto-Roles and Argument Selection’, Language 67.3: 547-619. Google Scholar

DPV, 2006. Diccionario de perífrasis verbales (Madrid: Gredos). Google Scholar

García Fernández, Luis, 2000. La gramática de los complementos temporales (Madrid: Visor). Google Scholar

Garey, Howard B., 1957. ‘Verbal Aspects in French’, Language 33.2: 91-110. Google Scholar

GDLE véase Bosque, Ignacio y Violeta Demonte (coords.) Google Scholar

Havu, Jukka, 1997. La constitución temporal del sintagma verbal en el español moderno (Helsinki: Academia Scientiarum Fennica). Google Scholar

Hay, Jennifer, 1998. ‘The Non-uniformity of Degree Achievements’. Paper Presented at the 72nd Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, New York. Google Scholar

Hay, Jennifer, Christopher Kennedy y Beth Levin, 1999. ‘Scalar Structure Underlies Telicity in Degree Achievements’, en Proceedings of SALT IX, ed. Tanya Mathews y Devon Strolovitch (Ithaca: CLC Publications), pp. 127-44. Google Scholar

Jackendoff, Ray, 1996. ‘The Proper Treatment of Measuring Out, Telicity, and Perhaps Even Quantification in English’, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 14: 305-54. Google Scholar

Jaque, Matias, 2014. ‘La expresión de la estatividad en español: niveles de representación y grados de dinamicidad’, Tesis doctoral, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Google Scholar

Kenny, Anthony, 1963. Action, Emotion and Will (Londres: Routledge and Kegan Paul). Google Scholar

Krifka, Manfred, 1992. ‘Thematic Relations as Links between Nominal Reference and Temporal Constitution’, en Lexical Matters, ed. Ivan Sag y Anna Szabolcski (Stanford: CSLI), pp. 29-54. Google Scholar

Levin, Beth, 2000. ‘Aspect, Lexical Semantic Representation, and Argument Expression’, en Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society: General Session and Parasession on Aspect, pp. 413-29. Google Scholar

Lys, Franziska, y Kerry Mommer, 1986. ‘The Problem of Aspectual Verb Classification: A Two-Level Approach’, en CLS 22 (Papers from the General Session at the 22nd Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society), pp. 216-30. Google Scholar

NGLE véase Real Academia Española Google Scholar

Real Academia Española, 2009. Nueva Gramática de la Lengua Española (Madrid: Espasa-Calpe). Google Scholar

Rothstein, Susanne, 2007. ‘Two Puzzles for a Theory of Lexical Aspect: The Case of Semelfactives and Degree Adverbials’, en Event Structures in Linguistic Form and Interpretation, ed. Johannes Dölling, Tatjana Heyde-Zybatow y Martin Schäfer (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter), pp. 175-97. Google Scholar

Rothstein, Susanne, 2008. Structuring Events: A Study in the Semantics of Lexical Aspect (Oxford: Blackwell). Google Scholar

Sasse, Hans-Jürgen, 2002. ‘Recent Activity in the Theory of Aspect: Accomplishments, Achievements, or just non-Progressive State?’, Linguistic Typology 6.2: 199-271. Google Scholar

Smith, Carlota, 1991. The Parameter of Aspect (Dordrecht: Kluwer). Google Scholar

Tenny, Carol, 1992. ‘The Aspectual Interface Hypothesis’, en Lexical Matters, ed. Ivan Sag y Anna Szabolcski (Stanford: CSLI), pp. 1-27. Google Scholar

Vendler, Zeno, 1957. ‘Verbs and Times’, en The Philosophical Review 66.2: 143-60. Google Scholar

Verkuyl, Henk, 1993. A Theory of Aspectuality. The Interaction between Temporal and Atemporal Structure (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Google Scholar

Xiao, Zhongua, y Alexander McEnery, 2005. ‘Situation Aspect: A Two-Level Approach’, Cahiers Chronos 13: 185-200. Google Scholar

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OTAL, JUAN CUARTERO