International Development Planning Review

How can street routines inform state regulation? Learning from informal traders in Baclaran, Metro Manila

International Development Planning Review (2021), 43, (1), 63–88.

Abstract

Informal vendors have occupied the streets of Metro Manila’s Baclaran district since the 1950s. Their presence has generated policies seeking to manage or banish street hawking. Years of street occupancy, however, have enabled the vendors to enforce grassroots mechanisms to appropriate streetscapes. In this paper, I analyse three routinised practices - the haging occupancy, the Bermonths routine and the various finance-generating schemes - that have enabled vendors to persist amidst the changing socio-political conditions. These practices capture the Baclaran hawkers’ insecure access to contested spaces, how they capitalise on a socio-temporal dimension of informality, how they cope with economic distress, and how they enforce a set of property rights arrangements. Understanding these grassroots practices, which are embedded in the precarity of street life, can inform responsive policies on urban informal trading.

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References

Alcazaren, P., Ferrer, L. and Icamina, B. (2011) Lungsod Iskwater: the evolution of informality as a dominant pattern in Philippine cities, Mandaluyong City, Anvil Publishing. Google Scholar

Almario, V. S. (ed.) (2010) UP Diksiyonaryong Filipino - Binagong Edisyon, UP Sentro ng Wikang Filipino-Diliman at Anvil Publishing. Google Scholar

Batreau, Q. and Bonnet, F. (2016) ‘Managed informality: regulating street vendors in Bangkok’, City & Community, 15(1), 29-43. Google Scholar

Bayat, A. (1997) Street politics: poor people’s movements in Iran, New York, Columbia University Press. Google Scholar

Bayat, A. (2013) Life as politics: how ordinary people change the Middle East, Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press. Google Scholar

Bose, S. and Mishra, Y. (2013) ‘Notes on street vendors in Kolkata: a review’, Labor Law Journal, 64(3), 165-71. Google Scholar

Brown, A. (2006) ‘Urban public space in the developing world: a resource for the poor’, in A. Brown (ed.), Contested space: street trading, public space and livelihoods in developing cities, Rugy, ITDG, 17-35. Google Scholar

Brown, A. (2017) ‘Claiming the streets: reframing property rights for the urban informal economy’, in A. Brown (ed.), Rebel streets and the informal economy: street trade and the law, Abingdon and New York, Routledge, 77-93. Google Scholar

Brown, A. and Mackie, P. (2017) ‘Urban informality and “rebel streets”’, in Brown (ed.), Rebel streets and the informal economy, 1-16. Google Scholar

Bunnell, T. and Harris, A. (2012) ‘Reviewing informality: perspectives from urban Asia’, International Development Planning Review, 34(4), 339-48. Google Scholar

Caldeira, T. P. R. and Holston, J. (1999) ‘Democracy and violence in Brazil’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 41(4), 691-729. Google Scholar

Castells, M. (1985) ‘From the urban question to the city and the grassroots’ (Working Paper 47), Urban and Regional Studies, Brighton, University of Sussex. Google Scholar

Charmes, J., Gault, F. and Wunsch-Vincent, S. (2018) ‘Measuring innovation in the informal economy-formulating an agenda for Africa’, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 19(3), 536-49. Google Scholar

Chatterjee, P. (2004) The politics of the governed: reflections on popular politics in most of the world, New York, Columbia University Press. Google Scholar

CLEP (Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor) and UNDP (United Nations Development Program) (2008) ‘Making the law work for everyone: report of the commission on legal empowerment of the poor’ (report), New York, CLEP and UNDP. Google Scholar

Crossa, V. (2009) ‘Resisting the entrepreneurial city: street vendors’ struggle in Mexico City’s historic center’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 33(1), 43-63. Google Scholar

Cushner, N. P. (1976) Landed estates in the colonial Philippines, New Haven, CT, Yale University. Google Scholar

De Beer, J., Kun, F. and Wunsch-Vincent, S. (2013) ‘The informal economy, innovation and intellectual property: concepts, metrics and policy considerations’ (WIPO Economic Research Working Papers No. 8), Geneva, Economics and Statistics Division, World Intellectual Property Organisation. Google Scholar

De Beer, J., Fu, K. and Wunsch-Vincent, S. (2016) ‘Innovation in the informal economy’, in E. Kraemer-Mbula and S. Wunsch-Vincent (eds), The informal economy in developing nations: hidden engine of innovation? Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 53-87. Google Scholar

De Soto, H. (2000) The mystery of capital: why capitalism succeeds in the West and fails everywhere else, New York, Basic Books. Google Scholar

Dovey, K. (2012) ‘Informal urbanism and complex adaptive assemblage’, International Development Planning Review, 34(4), 349-67. Google Scholar

Fadaee, S. and Schindler, S. (2017) ‘Women hawkers in Tehran’s metro: everyday politics and the production of public space’, International Development Planning Review, 39(1), 57-75. Google Scholar

Falla, A. M. V. and Valencia, S. C. (2019) ‘Beyond state regulation of informality: understanding access to public space by street vendors in Bogotá’, International Development Planning Review, 41(1), 85-105. Google Scholar

Flock, R. and Breitung, W. (2016) ‘Migrant street vendors in urban China and the social production of public space’, Population, Space and Place, 22(2), 158-69. Google Scholar

Flyvbjerg, B. (2006) ‘Five misunderstandings about case study research’, Qualitative Inquiry, 12(2), 219-45. Google Scholar

Geertz, C. (1963) Peddlers and princes: social change and economic modernisation in two Indonesian towns, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar

Gibbings, S. (2013) ‘Unseen powers and democratic detectives: street vendors in an Indonesian city’, City & Society, 25(2), 235-59. Google Scholar

Giddens, A. (1984) The constitution of society: outline of the theory of structuration, Cambridge, Polity Press. Google Scholar

Gupta, A. K. (2012) ‘Innovations for the poor by the poor’, International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development, 5(1-2), 28-39. Google Scholar

Hardin, G. (1968) ‘The tragedy of the commons’, Science, 162, 1243-48. Google Scholar

Hart, K. (1973) ‘Informal income opportunities and urban employment in Ghana’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 11(1), 61-89. Google Scholar

Harvey, D. (2008) ‘Right to the city’, New Left Review, 53, 23-42. Google Scholar

Healey, P. (1997) Collaborative planning: shaping places in fragmented societies, London, Macmillan. Google Scholar

Healey, P. (2007a) ‘The new institutionalism and the transformative goals of planning’, in N. Verma (ed.), Institutions and planning, Oxford, Elsevier, 61-87. Google Scholar

Healey, P. (2007b) Urban complexity and spatial strategies: towards a relational planning for our times, Abingdon, Routledge and the Royal Town Planning Institute. Google Scholar

Hobsbawm, E. J. (1959) Primitive rebels: studies in archaic forms of social movements in the 19th and 20th centuries, Manchester, Manchester University Press. Google Scholar

ILO (International Labour Organisation) (2017) Transition from the informal to the formal economy recommendation, 2015 (no. 204): workers’ guide, Geneva, ILO. Google Scholar

Ingram, G. K. and Hong, Y. (eds) (2009) Property rights and land policies, Cambridge, MA, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Google Scholar

Kaufman, M. (1997) ‘Community power, grassroots democracy, and the transformation of social life’, in M. Kaufman and H. D. Alfonso (eds), Community power and grassroots democracy: the transformation of social life, London, Zed Books, 1-26. Google Scholar

Kerkvliet, B. J. T. (2009) ‘Everyday politics in peasant societies (and ours)’, The Journal of Peasant Studies, 36(1), 227-43. Google Scholar

Kim, A. M. (2012) ‘The mixed-use sidewalk: vending and property rights in public space’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 78(3), 225-38. Google Scholar

Kraemer-Mbula, E. and Konte, A. (2016) ‘Innovation policy and the informal economy: toward a new policy framework’, in E. Kraemer-Mbula and S. Wunsch-Vincent (eds), The informal economy in developing nations: hidden engine of innovation?, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 296-326. Google Scholar

La Hovary, C. (2013) The informal economy and decent work: a policy resource guide, supporting transitions to formality, Geneva, International Labour Office. Google Scholar

Lindell, I. (2019) ‘Re-spatializing urban informality: reconsidering the spatial politics of street work in the global South’, International Development Planning Review, 41(1), 3-20. Google Scholar

Lindell, I., Ampaire, C. and Byerley, A. (2019) ‘Governing urban informality: re-working spaces and subjects in Kampala, Uganda’, International Development Planning Review, 41(1), 63-84. Google Scholar

Livingston, I. (1991) ‘A reassessment of Kenya’s rural and urban informal sector’, World Development, 19(6), 651-70. Google Scholar

Lyons, M. (2013) ‘Pro-poor business law? On MKURABITA and the legal empowerment of Tanzania’s street vendors’, Hague Journal on the Rule of Law, 5(1), 74-95. Google Scholar

Marx, C. (2009) ‘Conceptualizing the potential of informal land markets to reduce urban poverty’, International Development Planning Review, 31(4), 336-53. Google Scholar

McGee, T. G. (1973) Hawkers in Hong Kong: a study of planning and policy in a Third World city, Hong Kong, Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong. Google Scholar

Meneses-Reyes, R. and Caballero-Juárez, J. A. (2014) ‘The right to work on the street: public space and constitutional rights’, Planning Theory, 13(4), 370-86. Google Scholar

Mitchell, D. (2003) The right to the city: social justice and the fight for public space, New York, Guilford Press. Google Scholar

Oriard, L. R. (2015) ‘Street vending and its ability to produce space: the case of the Tepito Market in Mexico City downtown area’ (PhD thesis), London, University College London. Google Scholar

Ostrom, E. (2009) ‘Design principles of robust property rights institutions: what have we learned?’, in Ingram and Hong (eds), 25-51. Google Scholar

Peña, S. (1999) ‘Informal markets: street vendors in Mexico City’, Habitat International, 23(3), 363-72. Google Scholar

Piliavsky, A. (ed.) (2014) Patronage as the politics of South Asia, New York, Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Recio, R. B. (2010) Street use and urban informal vending: towards a policy framework addressing socio-spatial issues of urban informal vending vis-à-vis the use of streets (The case of Caloocan City), (MA thesis), Quezon City, Philippines, University of the Philippines Diliman. Google Scholar

Recio, R. B. (2015) ‘Engaging the “ungovernable”: urban informality issues and insights for planning’, Journal in Urban and Regional Planning, 1(1), 18-37. Google Scholar

Recio, R. B. (2016) ‘Evictions and urban socio-spatial relations: evidence from a Southeast Asian metropolitan area’, Refereed Proceedings of The Australian Sociological Association Conference, The Australian Sociological Association Annual Conference (TASA 2012), Brisbane, Australia, 26-29 November 2012, 292-99. Google Scholar

Recio, R. B. and Gomez, J. E. A. (2013) ‘Street vendors, their contested spaces, and the policy environment: a view from Caloócan, Metro Manila’, Environment and Urbanisation ASIA, 4(1), 173-90. Google Scholar

Recio, R. B., Mateo-Babiano, I. and Roitman, S. (2017) ‘Revisiting policy epistemologies on urban informality: towards a post-dualist view’, Cities, 61, 136. Google Scholar

Roever, S. (2006) ‘Street trade in Latin America: demographic trends, legal issues, and vending organisations in six cities’, in S. Bhowmik (ed.), Street vendors in the global urban economy, New Delhi, Routledge, 208-40. Google Scholar

Roever, S. (2016) ‘Informal trade meets informal governance: street vendors and legal reform in India, South Africa, and Peru’, Cityscape, 18(1), 27-46. Google Scholar

Routray, S. (2014) ‘The postcolonial city and its displaced poor: rethinking “political society” in Delhi’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 38(6), 2292-308. Google Scholar

Roy, A. (2005) ‘Urban informality: toward an epistemology of planning’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 71(2), 147-58. Google Scholar

Roy, A. (2009) ‘Strangely familiar: planning and the worlds of insurgence and informality’, Planning Theory, 8(1), 7-11. Google Scholar

Rukmana, D. (2011) ‘Street vendors and planning in Indonesian cities’, Planning Theory and Practice, 12(1), 138-44. Google Scholar

Santos, M. (1979) The shared space, from Portuguese edition (1975), C. Gerry, trans., London and New York, Methuen. Google Scholar

Sethuraman, S. V. (1981) The urban informal sector in developing countries: employment, poverty and environment, Geneva, International Labour Office. Google Scholar

Song, L. K. (2016) ‘Planning with urban informality: a case for inclusion, co-production and reiteration’, International Development Planning Review, 38(4), 359-81. Google Scholar

Swider, S. (2015) ‘Reshaping China’s urban citizenship: street vendors, Chengguan and struggles over the right to the city’, Critical Sociology, 41(4-5), 701. Google Scholar

Tucker, J. (2016) ‘Contraband city: geographies of extralegal work and life in Paraguay’s frontier economy’ (PhD thesis), Berkeley, University of California. Google Scholar

UN-Habitat and UN-Escap (2015) The state of Asian and Pacific cities 2015: urban transformations: shifting from quantity to quality, London, UN-Habitat and UN-Escap. Google Scholar

Watson, V. (2003) ‘Conflicting rationalities: implications for planning theory and ethics’, Planning Theory and Practice, 4(4), 395-407. Google Scholar

Yiftachel, O. (2006) ‘Re-engaging planning theory?Towards “south-Eastern” perspectives’, Planning Theory, 5(3), 211-22. Google Scholar

Yin, R. (1994) Case study research: design and methods, Thousand Oaks, Sage. Google Scholar

Yin, R. (2014) Case study research: design and methods, 5th ed., Los Angeles, Sage. Google Scholar

Alcazaren, P., Ferrer, L. and Icamina, B. (2011) Lungsod Iskwater: the evolution of informality as a dominant pattern in Philippine cities, Mandaluyong City, Anvil Publishing. Google Scholar

Almario, V. S. (ed.) (2010) UP Diksiyonaryong Filipino - Binagong Edisyon, UP Sentro ng Wikang Filipino-Diliman at Anvil Publishing. Google Scholar

Batreau, Q. and Bonnet, F. (2016) ‘Managed informality: regulating street vendors in Bangkok’, City & Community, 15(1), 29-43. Google Scholar

Bayat, A. (1997) Street politics: poor people’s movements in Iran, New York, Columbia University Press. Google Scholar

Bayat, A. (2013) Life as politics: how ordinary people change the Middle East, Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press. Google Scholar

Bose, S. and Mishra, Y. (2013) ‘Notes on street vendors in Kolkata: a review’, Labor Law Journal, 64(3), 165-71. Google Scholar

Brown, A. (2006) ‘Urban public space in the developing world: a resource for the poor’, in A. Brown (ed.), Contested space: street trading, public space and livelihoods in developing cities, Rugy, ITDG, 17-35. Google Scholar

Brown, A. (2017) ‘Claiming the streets: reframing property rights for the urban informal economy’, in A. Brown (ed.), Rebel streets and the informal economy: street trade and the law, Abingdon and New York, Routledge, 77-93. Google Scholar

Brown, A. and Mackie, P. (2017) ‘Urban informality and “rebel streets”’, in Brown (ed.), Rebel streets and the informal economy, 1-16. Google Scholar

Bunnell, T. and Harris, A. (2012) ‘Reviewing informality: perspectives from urban Asia’, International Development Planning Review, 34(4), 339-48. Google Scholar

Caldeira, T. P. R. and Holston, J. (1999) ‘Democracy and violence in Brazil’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 41(4), 691-729. Google Scholar

Castells, M. (1985) ‘From the urban question to the city and the grassroots’ (Working Paper 47), Urban and Regional Studies, Brighton, University of Sussex. Google Scholar

Charmes, J., Gault, F. and Wunsch-Vincent, S. (2018) ‘Measuring innovation in the informal economy-formulating an agenda for Africa’, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 19(3), 536-49. Google Scholar

Chatterjee, P. (2004) The politics of the governed: reflections on popular politics in most of the world, New York, Columbia University Press. Google Scholar

CLEP (Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor) and UNDP (United Nations Development Program) (2008) ‘Making the law work for everyone: report of the commission on legal empowerment of the poor’ (report), New York, CLEP and UNDP. Google Scholar

Crossa, V. (2009) ‘Resisting the entrepreneurial city: street vendors’ struggle in Mexico City’s historic center’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 33(1), 43-63. Google Scholar

Cushner, N. P. (1976) Landed estates in the colonial Philippines, New Haven, CT, Yale University. Google Scholar

De Beer, J., Kun, F. and Wunsch-Vincent, S. (2013) ‘The informal economy, innovation and intellectual property: concepts, metrics and policy considerations’ (WIPO Economic Research Working Papers No. 8), Geneva, Economics and Statistics Division, World Intellectual Property Organisation. Google Scholar

De Beer, J., Fu, K. and Wunsch-Vincent, S. (2016) ‘Innovation in the informal economy’, in E. Kraemer-Mbula and S. Wunsch-Vincent (eds), The informal economy in developing nations: hidden engine of innovation? Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 53-87. Google Scholar

De Soto, H. (2000) The mystery of capital: why capitalism succeeds in the West and fails everywhere else, New York, Basic Books. Google Scholar

Dovey, K. (2012) ‘Informal urbanism and complex adaptive assemblage’, International Development Planning Review, 34(4), 349-67. Google Scholar

Fadaee, S. and Schindler, S. (2017) ‘Women hawkers in Tehran’s metro: everyday politics and the production of public space’, International Development Planning Review, 39(1), 57-75. Google Scholar

Falla, A. M. V. and Valencia, S. C. (2019) ‘Beyond state regulation of informality: understanding access to public space by street vendors in Bogotá’, International Development Planning Review, 41(1), 85-105. Google Scholar

Flock, R. and Breitung, W. (2016) ‘Migrant street vendors in urban China and the social production of public space’, Population, Space and Place, 22(2), 158-69. Google Scholar

Flyvbjerg, B. (2006) ‘Five misunderstandings about case study research’, Qualitative Inquiry, 12(2), 219-45. Google Scholar

Geertz, C. (1963) Peddlers and princes: social change and economic modernisation in two Indonesian towns, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar

Gibbings, S. (2013) ‘Unseen powers and democratic detectives: street vendors in an Indonesian city’, City & Society, 25(2), 235-59. Google Scholar

Giddens, A. (1984) The constitution of society: outline of the theory of structuration, Cambridge, Polity Press. Google Scholar

Gupta, A. K. (2012) ‘Innovations for the poor by the poor’, International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development, 5(1-2), 28-39. Google Scholar

Hardin, G. (1968) ‘The tragedy of the commons’, Science, 162, 1243-48. Google Scholar

Hart, K. (1973) ‘Informal income opportunities and urban employment in Ghana’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 11(1), 61-89. Google Scholar

Harvey, D. (2008) ‘Right to the city’, New Left Review, 53, 23-42. Google Scholar

Healey, P. (1997) Collaborative planning: shaping places in fragmented societies, London, Macmillan. Google Scholar

Healey, P. (2007a) ‘The new institutionalism and the transformative goals of planning’, in N. Verma (ed.), Institutions and planning, Oxford, Elsevier, 61-87. Google Scholar

Healey, P. (2007b) Urban complexity and spatial strategies: towards a relational planning for our times, Abingdon, Routledge and the Royal Town Planning Institute. Google Scholar

Hobsbawm, E. J. (1959) Primitive rebels: studies in archaic forms of social movements in the 19th and 20th centuries, Manchester, Manchester University Press. Google Scholar

ILO (International Labour Organisation) (2017) Transition from the informal to the formal economy recommendation, 2015 (no. 204): workers’ guide, Geneva, ILO. Google Scholar

Ingram, G. K. and Hong, Y. (eds) (2009) Property rights and land policies, Cambridge, MA, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Google Scholar

Kaufman, M. (1997) ‘Community power, grassroots democracy, and the transformation of social life’, in M. Kaufman and H. D. Alfonso (eds), Community power and grassroots democracy: the transformation of social life, London, Zed Books, 1-26. Google Scholar

Kerkvliet, B. J. T. (2009) ‘Everyday politics in peasant societies (and ours)’, The Journal of Peasant Studies, 36(1), 227-43. Google Scholar

Kim, A. M. (2012) ‘The mixed-use sidewalk: vending and property rights in public space’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 78(3), 225-38. Google Scholar

Kraemer-Mbula, E. and Konte, A. (2016) ‘Innovation policy and the informal economy: toward a new policy framework’, in E. Kraemer-Mbula and S. Wunsch-Vincent (eds), The informal economy in developing nations: hidden engine of innovation?, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 296-326. Google Scholar

La Hovary, C. (2013) The informal economy and decent work: a policy resource guide, supporting transitions to formality, Geneva, International Labour Office. Google Scholar

Lindell, I. (2019) ‘Re-spatializing urban informality: reconsidering the spatial politics of street work in the global South’, International Development Planning Review, 41(1), 3-20. Google Scholar

Lindell, I., Ampaire, C. and Byerley, A. (2019) ‘Governing urban informality: re-working spaces and subjects in Kampala, Uganda’, International Development Planning Review, 41(1), 63-84. Google Scholar

Livingston, I. (1991) ‘A reassessment of Kenya’s rural and urban informal sector’, World Development, 19(6), 651-70. Google Scholar

Lyons, M. (2013) ‘Pro-poor business law? On MKURABITA and the legal empowerment of Tanzania’s street vendors’, Hague Journal on the Rule of Law, 5(1), 74-95. Google Scholar

Marx, C. (2009) ‘Conceptualizing the potential of informal land markets to reduce urban poverty’, International Development Planning Review, 31(4), 336-53. Google Scholar

McGee, T. G. (1973) Hawkers in Hong Kong: a study of planning and policy in a Third World city, Hong Kong, Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong. Google Scholar

Meneses-Reyes, R. and Caballero-Juárez, J. A. (2014) ‘The right to work on the street: public space and constitutional rights’, Planning Theory, 13(4), 370-86. Google Scholar

Mitchell, D. (2003) The right to the city: social justice and the fight for public space, New York, Guilford Press. Google Scholar

Oriard, L. R. (2015) ‘Street vending and its ability to produce space: the case of the Tepito Market in Mexico City downtown area’ (PhD thesis), London, University College London. Google Scholar

Ostrom, E. (2009) ‘Design principles of robust property rights institutions: what have we learned?’, in Ingram and Hong (eds), 25-51. Google Scholar

Peña, S. (1999) ‘Informal markets: street vendors in Mexico City’, Habitat International, 23(3), 363-72. Google Scholar

Piliavsky, A. (ed.) (2014) Patronage as the politics of South Asia, New York, Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Recio, R. B. (2010) Street use and urban informal vending: towards a policy framework addressing socio-spatial issues of urban informal vending vis-à-vis the use of streets (The case of Caloocan City), (MA thesis), Quezon City, Philippines, University of the Philippines Diliman. Google Scholar

Recio, R. B. (2015) ‘Engaging the “ungovernable”: urban informality issues and insights for planning’, Journal in Urban and Regional Planning, 1(1), 18-37. Google Scholar

Recio, R. B. (2016) ‘Evictions and urban socio-spatial relations: evidence from a Southeast Asian metropolitan area’, Refereed Proceedings of The Australian Sociological Association Conference, The Australian Sociological Association Annual Conference (TASA 2012), Brisbane, Australia, 26-29 November 2012, 292-99. Google Scholar

Recio, R. B. and Gomez, J. E. A. (2013) ‘Street vendors, their contested spaces, and the policy environment: a view from Caloócan, Metro Manila’, Environment and Urbanisation ASIA, 4(1), 173-90. Google Scholar

Recio, R. B., Mateo-Babiano, I. and Roitman, S. (2017) ‘Revisiting policy epistemologies on urban informality: towards a post-dualist view’, Cities, 61, 136. Google Scholar

Roever, S. (2006) ‘Street trade in Latin America: demographic trends, legal issues, and vending organisations in six cities’, in S. Bhowmik (ed.), Street vendors in the global urban economy, New Delhi, Routledge, 208-40. Google Scholar

Roever, S. (2016) ‘Informal trade meets informal governance: street vendors and legal reform in India, South Africa, and Peru’, Cityscape, 18(1), 27-46. Google Scholar

Routray, S. (2014) ‘The postcolonial city and its displaced poor: rethinking “political society” in Delhi’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 38(6), 2292-308. Google Scholar

Roy, A. (2005) ‘Urban informality: toward an epistemology of planning’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 71(2), 147-58. Google Scholar

Roy, A. (2009) ‘Strangely familiar: planning and the worlds of insurgence and informality’, Planning Theory, 8(1), 7-11. Google Scholar

Rukmana, D. (2011) ‘Street vendors and planning in Indonesian cities’, Planning Theory and Practice, 12(1), 138-44. Google Scholar

Santos, M. (1979) The shared space, from Portuguese edition (1975), C. Gerry, trans., London and New York, Methuen. Google Scholar

Sethuraman, S. V. (1981) The urban informal sector in developing countries: employment, poverty and environment, Geneva, International Labour Office. Google Scholar

Song, L. K. (2016) ‘Planning with urban informality: a case for inclusion, co-production and reiteration’, International Development Planning Review, 38(4), 359-81. Google Scholar

Swider, S. (2015) ‘Reshaping China’s urban citizenship: street vendors, Chengguan and struggles over the right to the city’, Critical Sociology, 41(4-5), 701. Google Scholar

Tucker, J. (2016) ‘Contraband city: geographies of extralegal work and life in Paraguay’s frontier economy’ (PhD thesis), Berkeley, University of California. Google Scholar

UN-Habitat and UN-Escap (2015) The state of Asian and Pacific cities 2015: urban transformations: shifting from quantity to quality, London, UN-Habitat and UN-Escap. Google Scholar

Watson, V. (2003) ‘Conflicting rationalities: implications for planning theory and ethics’, Planning Theory and Practice, 4(4), 395-407. Google Scholar

Yiftachel, O. (2006) ‘Re-engaging planning theory?Towards “south-Eastern” perspectives’, Planning Theory, 5(3), 211-22. Google Scholar

Yin, R. (1994) Case study research: design and methods, Thousand Oaks, Sage. Google Scholar

Yin, R. (2014) Case study research: design and methods, 5th ed., Los Angeles, Sage. Google Scholar

Alcazaren, P., Ferrer, L. and Icamina, B. (2011) Lungsod Iskwater: the evolution of informality as a dominant pattern in Philippine cities, Mandaluyong City, Anvil Publishing. Google Scholar

Alcazaren, P., Ferrer, L. and Icamina, B. (2011) Lungsod Iskwater: the evolution of informality as a dominant pattern in Philippine cities, Mandaluyong City, Anvil Publishing. Google Scholar

Alcazaren, P., Ferrer, L. and Icamina, B. (2011) Lungsod Iskwater: the evolution of informality as a dominant pattern in Philippine cities, Mandaluyong City, Anvil Publishing. Google Scholar

Almario, V. S. (ed.) (2010) UP Diksiyonaryong Filipino - Binagong Edisyon, UP Sentro ng Wikang Filipino-Diliman at Anvil Publishing. Google Scholar

Almario, V. S. (ed.) (2010) UP Diksiyonaryong Filipino - Binagong Edisyon, UP Sentro ng Wikang Filipino-Diliman at Anvil Publishing. Google Scholar

Almario, V. S. (ed.) (2010) UP Diksiyonaryong Filipino - Binagong Edisyon, UP Sentro ng Wikang Filipino-Diliman at Anvil Publishing. Google Scholar

Batreau, Q. and Bonnet, F. (2016) ‘Managed informality: regulating street vendors in Bangkok’, City & Community, 15(1), 29-43. Google Scholar

Batreau, Q. and Bonnet, F. (2016) ‘Managed informality: regulating street vendors in Bangkok’, City & Community, 15(1), 29-43. Google Scholar

Batreau, Q. and Bonnet, F. (2016) ‘Managed informality: regulating street vendors in Bangkok’, City & Community, 15(1), 29-43. Google Scholar

Bayat, A. (1997) Street politics: poor people’s movements in Iran, New York, Columbia University Press. Google Scholar

Bayat, A. (1997) Street politics: poor people’s movements in Iran, New York, Columbia University Press. Google Scholar

Bayat, A. (1997) Street politics: poor people’s movements in Iran, New York, Columbia University Press. Google Scholar

Bayat, A. (2013) Life as politics: how ordinary people change the Middle East, Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press. Google Scholar

Bayat, A. (2013) Life as politics: how ordinary people change the Middle East, Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press. Google Scholar

Bayat, A. (2013) Life as politics: how ordinary people change the Middle East, Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press. Google Scholar

Bose, S. and Mishra, Y. (2013) ‘Notes on street vendors in Kolkata: a review’, Labor Law Journal, 64(3), 165-71. Google Scholar

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Yin, R. (2014) Case study research: design and methods, 5th ed., Los Angeles, Sage. Google Scholar

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Almario, V. S. (ed.) (2010) UP Diksiyonaryong Filipino - Binagong Edisyon, UP Sentro ng Wikang Filipino-Diliman at Anvil Publishing. Google Scholar

Batreau, Q. and Bonnet, F. (2016) ‘Managed informality: regulating street vendors in Bangkok’, City & Community, 15(1), 29-43. Google Scholar

Bayat, A. (1997) Street politics: poor people’s movements in Iran, New York, Columbia University Press. Google Scholar

Bayat, A. (2013) Life as politics: how ordinary people change the Middle East, Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press. Google Scholar

Bose, S. and Mishra, Y. (2013) ‘Notes on street vendors in Kolkata: a review’, Labor Law Journal, 64(3), 165-71. Google Scholar

Brown, A. (2006) ‘Urban public space in the developing world: a resource for the poor’, in A. Brown (ed.), Contested space: street trading, public space and livelihoods in developing cities, Rugy, ITDG, 17-35. Google Scholar

Brown, A. (2017) ‘Claiming the streets: reframing property rights for the urban informal economy’, in A. Brown (ed.), Rebel streets and the informal economy: street trade and the law, Abingdon and New York, Routledge, 77-93. Google Scholar

Brown, A. and Mackie, P. (2017) ‘Urban informality and “rebel streets”’, in Brown (ed.), Rebel streets and the informal economy, 1-16. Google Scholar

Bunnell, T. and Harris, A. (2012) ‘Reviewing informality: perspectives from urban Asia’, International Development Planning Review, 34(4), 339-48. Google Scholar

Caldeira, T. P. R. and Holston, J. (1999) ‘Democracy and violence in Brazil’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 41(4), 691-729. Google Scholar

Castells, M. (1985) ‘From the urban question to the city and the grassroots’ (Working Paper 47), Urban and Regional Studies, Brighton, University of Sussex. Google Scholar

Charmes, J., Gault, F. and Wunsch-Vincent, S. (2018) ‘Measuring innovation in the informal economy-formulating an agenda for Africa’, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 19(3), 536-49. Google Scholar

Chatterjee, P. (2004) The politics of the governed: reflections on popular politics in most of the world, New York, Columbia University Press. Google Scholar

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Crossa, V. (2009) ‘Resisting the entrepreneurial city: street vendors’ struggle in Mexico City’s historic center’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 33(1), 43-63. Google Scholar

Cushner, N. P. (1976) Landed estates in the colonial Philippines, New Haven, CT, Yale University. Google Scholar

De Beer, J., Kun, F. and Wunsch-Vincent, S. (2013) ‘The informal economy, innovation and intellectual property: concepts, metrics and policy considerations’ (WIPO Economic Research Working Papers No. 8), Geneva, Economics and Statistics Division, World Intellectual Property Organisation. Google Scholar

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De Soto, H. (2000) The mystery of capital: why capitalism succeeds in the West and fails everywhere else, New York, Basic Books. Google Scholar

Dovey, K. (2012) ‘Informal urbanism and complex adaptive assemblage’, International Development Planning Review, 34(4), 349-67. Google Scholar

Fadaee, S. and Schindler, S. (2017) ‘Women hawkers in Tehran’s metro: everyday politics and the production of public space’, International Development Planning Review, 39(1), 57-75. Google Scholar

Falla, A. M. V. and Valencia, S. C. (2019) ‘Beyond state regulation of informality: understanding access to public space by street vendors in Bogotá’, International Development Planning Review, 41(1), 85-105. Google Scholar

Flock, R. and Breitung, W. (2016) ‘Migrant street vendors in urban China and the social production of public space’, Population, Space and Place, 22(2), 158-69. Google Scholar

Flyvbjerg, B. (2006) ‘Five misunderstandings about case study research’, Qualitative Inquiry, 12(2), 219-45. Google Scholar

Geertz, C. (1963) Peddlers and princes: social change and economic modernisation in two Indonesian towns, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar

Gibbings, S. (2013) ‘Unseen powers and democratic detectives: street vendors in an Indonesian city’, City & Society, 25(2), 235-59. Google Scholar

Giddens, A. (1984) The constitution of society: outline of the theory of structuration, Cambridge, Polity Press. Google Scholar

Gupta, A. K. (2012) ‘Innovations for the poor by the poor’, International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development, 5(1-2), 28-39. Google Scholar

Hardin, G. (1968) ‘The tragedy of the commons’, Science, 162, 1243-48. Google Scholar

Hart, K. (1973) ‘Informal income opportunities and urban employment in Ghana’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 11(1), 61-89. Google Scholar

Harvey, D. (2008) ‘Right to the city’, New Left Review, 53, 23-42. Google Scholar

Healey, P. (1997) Collaborative planning: shaping places in fragmented societies, London, Macmillan. Google Scholar

Healey, P. (2007a) ‘The new institutionalism and the transformative goals of planning’, in N. Verma (ed.), Institutions and planning, Oxford, Elsevier, 61-87. Google Scholar

Healey, P. (2007b) Urban complexity and spatial strategies: towards a relational planning for our times, Abingdon, Routledge and the Royal Town Planning Institute. Google Scholar

Hobsbawm, E. J. (1959) Primitive rebels: studies in archaic forms of social movements in the 19th and 20th centuries, Manchester, Manchester University Press. Google Scholar

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Kim, A. M. (2012) ‘The mixed-use sidewalk: vending and property rights in public space’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 78(3), 225-38. Google Scholar

Kraemer-Mbula, E. and Konte, A. (2016) ‘Innovation policy and the informal economy: toward a new policy framework’, in E. Kraemer-Mbula and S. Wunsch-Vincent (eds), The informal economy in developing nations: hidden engine of innovation?, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 296-326. Google Scholar

La Hovary, C. (2013) The informal economy and decent work: a policy resource guide, supporting transitions to formality, Geneva, International Labour Office. Google Scholar

Lindell, I. (2019) ‘Re-spatializing urban informality: reconsidering the spatial politics of street work in the global South’, International Development Planning Review, 41(1), 3-20. Google Scholar

Lindell, I., Ampaire, C. and Byerley, A. (2019) ‘Governing urban informality: re-working spaces and subjects in Kampala, Uganda’, International Development Planning Review, 41(1), 63-84. Google Scholar

Livingston, I. (1991) ‘A reassessment of Kenya’s rural and urban informal sector’, World Development, 19(6), 651-70. Google Scholar

Lyons, M. (2013) ‘Pro-poor business law? On MKURABITA and the legal empowerment of Tanzania’s street vendors’, Hague Journal on the Rule of Law, 5(1), 74-95. Google Scholar

Marx, C. (2009) ‘Conceptualizing the potential of informal land markets to reduce urban poverty’, International Development Planning Review, 31(4), 336-53. Google Scholar

McGee, T. G. (1973) Hawkers in Hong Kong: a study of planning and policy in a Third World city, Hong Kong, Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong. Google Scholar

Meneses-Reyes, R. and Caballero-Juárez, J. A. (2014) ‘The right to work on the street: public space and constitutional rights’, Planning Theory, 13(4), 370-86. Google Scholar

Mitchell, D. (2003) The right to the city: social justice and the fight for public space, New York, Guilford Press. Google Scholar

Oriard, L. R. (2015) ‘Street vending and its ability to produce space: the case of the Tepito Market in Mexico City downtown area’ (PhD thesis), London, University College London. Google Scholar

Ostrom, E. (2009) ‘Design principles of robust property rights institutions: what have we learned?’, in Ingram and Hong (eds), 25-51. Google Scholar

Peña, S. (1999) ‘Informal markets: street vendors in Mexico City’, Habitat International, 23(3), 363-72. Google Scholar

Piliavsky, A. (ed.) (2014) Patronage as the politics of South Asia, New York, Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Recio, R. B. (2010) Street use and urban informal vending: towards a policy framework addressing socio-spatial issues of urban informal vending vis-à-vis the use of streets (The case of Caloocan City), (MA thesis), Quezon City, Philippines, University of the Philippines Diliman. Google Scholar

Recio, R. B. (2015) ‘Engaging the “ungovernable”: urban informality issues and insights for planning’, Journal in Urban and Regional Planning, 1(1), 18-37. Google Scholar

Recio, R. B. (2016) ‘Evictions and urban socio-spatial relations: evidence from a Southeast Asian metropolitan area’, Refereed Proceedings of The Australian Sociological Association Conference, The Australian Sociological Association Annual Conference (TASA 2012), Brisbane, Australia, 26-29 November 2012, 292-99. Google Scholar

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Routray, S. (2014) ‘The postcolonial city and its displaced poor: rethinking “political society” in Delhi’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 38(6), 2292-308. Google Scholar

Roy, A. (2005) ‘Urban informality: toward an epistemology of planning’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 71(2), 147-58. Google Scholar

Roy, A. (2009) ‘Strangely familiar: planning and the worlds of insurgence and informality’, Planning Theory, 8(1), 7-11. Google Scholar

Rukmana, D. (2011) ‘Street vendors and planning in Indonesian cities’, Planning Theory and Practice, 12(1), 138-44. Google Scholar

Santos, M. (1979) The shared space, from Portuguese edition (1975), C. Gerry, trans., London and New York, Methuen. Google Scholar

Sethuraman, S. V. (1981) The urban informal sector in developing countries: employment, poverty and environment, Geneva, International Labour Office. Google Scholar

Song, L. K. (2016) ‘Planning with urban informality: a case for inclusion, co-production and reiteration’, International Development Planning Review, 38(4), 359-81. Google Scholar

Swider, S. (2015) ‘Reshaping China’s urban citizenship: street vendors, Chengguan and struggles over the right to the city’, Critical Sociology, 41(4-5), 701. Google Scholar

Tucker, J. (2016) ‘Contraband city: geographies of extralegal work and life in Paraguay’s frontier economy’ (PhD thesis), Berkeley, University of California. Google Scholar

UN-Habitat and UN-Escap (2015) The state of Asian and Pacific cities 2015: urban transformations: shifting from quantity to quality, London, UN-Habitat and UN-Escap. Google Scholar

Watson, V. (2003) ‘Conflicting rationalities: implications for planning theory and ethics’, Planning Theory and Practice, 4(4), 395-407. Google Scholar

Yiftachel, O. (2006) ‘Re-engaging planning theory?Towards “south-Eastern” perspectives’, Planning Theory, 5(3), 211-22. Google Scholar

Yin, R. (1994) Case study research: design and methods, Thousand Oaks, Sage. Google Scholar

Yin, R. (2014) Case study research: design and methods, 5th ed., Los Angeles, Sage. Google Scholar

Alcazaren, P., Ferrer, L. and Icamina, B. (2011) Lungsod Iskwater: the evolution of informality as a dominant pattern in Philippine cities, Mandaluyong City, Anvil Publishing. Google Scholar

Almario, V. S. (ed.) (2010) UP Diksiyonaryong Filipino - Binagong Edisyon, UP Sentro ng Wikang Filipino-Diliman at Anvil Publishing. Google Scholar

Batreau, Q. and Bonnet, F. (2016) ‘Managed informality: regulating street vendors in Bangkok’, City & Community, 15(1), 29-43. Google Scholar

Bayat, A. (1997) Street politics: poor people’s movements in Iran, New York, Columbia University Press. Google Scholar

Bayat, A. (2013) Life as politics: how ordinary people change the Middle East, Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press. Google Scholar

Bose, S. and Mishra, Y. (2013) ‘Notes on street vendors in Kolkata: a review’, Labor Law Journal, 64(3), 165-71. Google Scholar

Brown, A. (2006) ‘Urban public space in the developing world: a resource for the poor’, in A. Brown (ed.), Contested space: street trading, public space and livelihoods in developing cities, Rugy, ITDG, 17-35. Google Scholar

Brown, A. (2017) ‘Claiming the streets: reframing property rights for the urban informal economy’, in A. Brown (ed.), Rebel streets and the informal economy: street trade and the law, Abingdon and New York, Routledge, 77-93. Google Scholar

Brown, A. and Mackie, P. (2017) ‘Urban informality and “rebel streets”’, in Brown (ed.), Rebel streets and the informal economy, 1-16. Google Scholar

Bunnell, T. and Harris, A. (2012) ‘Reviewing informality: perspectives from urban Asia’, International Development Planning Review, 34(4), 339-48. Google Scholar

Caldeira, T. P. R. and Holston, J. (1999) ‘Democracy and violence in Brazil’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 41(4), 691-729. Google Scholar

Castells, M. (1985) ‘From the urban question to the city and the grassroots’ (Working Paper 47), Urban and Regional Studies, Brighton, University of Sussex. Google Scholar

Charmes, J., Gault, F. and Wunsch-Vincent, S. (2018) ‘Measuring innovation in the informal economy-formulating an agenda for Africa’, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 19(3), 536-49. Google Scholar

Chatterjee, P. (2004) The politics of the governed: reflections on popular politics in most of the world, New York, Columbia University Press. Google Scholar

CLEP (Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor) and UNDP (United Nations Development Program) (2008) ‘Making the law work for everyone: report of the commission on legal empowerment of the poor’ (report), New York, CLEP and UNDP. Google Scholar

Crossa, V. (2009) ‘Resisting the entrepreneurial city: street vendors’ struggle in Mexico City’s historic center’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 33(1), 43-63. Google Scholar

Cushner, N. P. (1976) Landed estates in the colonial Philippines, New Haven, CT, Yale University. Google Scholar

De Beer, J., Kun, F. and Wunsch-Vincent, S. (2013) ‘The informal economy, innovation and intellectual property: concepts, metrics and policy considerations’ (WIPO Economic Research Working Papers No. 8), Geneva, Economics and Statistics Division, World Intellectual Property Organisation. Google Scholar

De Beer, J., Fu, K. and Wunsch-Vincent, S. (2016) ‘Innovation in the informal economy’, in E. Kraemer-Mbula and S. Wunsch-Vincent (eds), The informal economy in developing nations: hidden engine of innovation? Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 53-87. Google Scholar

De Soto, H. (2000) The mystery of capital: why capitalism succeeds in the West and fails everywhere else, New York, Basic Books. Google Scholar

Dovey, K. (2012) ‘Informal urbanism and complex adaptive assemblage’, International Development Planning Review, 34(4), 349-67. Google Scholar

Fadaee, S. and Schindler, S. (2017) ‘Women hawkers in Tehran’s metro: everyday politics and the production of public space’, International Development Planning Review, 39(1), 57-75. Google Scholar

Falla, A. M. V. and Valencia, S. C. (2019) ‘Beyond state regulation of informality: understanding access to public space by street vendors in Bogotá’, International Development Planning Review, 41(1), 85-105. Google Scholar

Flock, R. and Breitung, W. (2016) ‘Migrant street vendors in urban China and the social production of public space’, Population, Space and Place, 22(2), 158-69. Google Scholar

Flyvbjerg, B. (2006) ‘Five misunderstandings about case study research’, Qualitative Inquiry, 12(2), 219-45. Google Scholar

Geertz, C. (1963) Peddlers and princes: social change and economic modernisation in two Indonesian towns, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar

Gibbings, S. (2013) ‘Unseen powers and democratic detectives: street vendors in an Indonesian city’, City & Society, 25(2), 235-59. Google Scholar

Giddens, A. (1984) The constitution of society: outline of the theory of structuration, Cambridge, Polity Press. Google Scholar

Gupta, A. K. (2012) ‘Innovations for the poor by the poor’, International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development, 5(1-2), 28-39. Google Scholar

Hardin, G. (1968) ‘The tragedy of the commons’, Science, 162, 1243-48. Google Scholar

Hart, K. (1973) ‘Informal income opportunities and urban employment in Ghana’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 11(1), 61-89. Google Scholar

Harvey, D. (2008) ‘Right to the city’, New Left Review, 53, 23-42. Google Scholar

Healey, P. (1997) Collaborative planning: shaping places in fragmented societies, London, Macmillan. Google Scholar

Healey, P. (2007a) ‘The new institutionalism and the transformative goals of planning’, in N. Verma (ed.), Institutions and planning, Oxford, Elsevier, 61-87. Google Scholar

Healey, P. (2007b) Urban complexity and spatial strategies: towards a relational planning for our times, Abingdon, Routledge and the Royal Town Planning Institute. Google Scholar

Hobsbawm, E. J. (1959) Primitive rebels: studies in archaic forms of social movements in the 19th and 20th centuries, Manchester, Manchester University Press. Google Scholar

ILO (International Labour Organisation) (2017) Transition from the informal to the formal economy recommendation, 2015 (no. 204): workers’ guide, Geneva, ILO. Google Scholar

Ingram, G. K. and Hong, Y. (eds) (2009) Property rights and land policies, Cambridge, MA, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Google Scholar

Kaufman, M. (1997) ‘Community power, grassroots democracy, and the transformation of social life’, in M. Kaufman and H. D. Alfonso (eds), Community power and grassroots democracy: the transformation of social life, London, Zed Books, 1-26. Google Scholar

Kerkvliet, B. J. T. (2009) ‘Everyday politics in peasant societies (and ours)’, The Journal of Peasant Studies, 36(1), 227-43. Google Scholar

Kim, A. M. (2012) ‘The mixed-use sidewalk: vending and property rights in public space’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 78(3), 225-38. Google Scholar

Kraemer-Mbula, E. and Konte, A. (2016) ‘Innovation policy and the informal economy: toward a new policy framework’, in E. Kraemer-Mbula and S. Wunsch-Vincent (eds), The informal economy in developing nations: hidden engine of innovation?, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 296-326. Google Scholar

La Hovary, C. (2013) The informal economy and decent work: a policy resource guide, supporting transitions to formality, Geneva, International Labour Office. Google Scholar

Lindell, I. (2019) ‘Re-spatializing urban informality: reconsidering the spatial politics of street work in the global South’, International Development Planning Review, 41(1), 3-20. Google Scholar

Lindell, I., Ampaire, C. and Byerley, A. (2019) ‘Governing urban informality: re-working spaces and subjects in Kampala, Uganda’, International Development Planning Review, 41(1), 63-84. Google Scholar

Livingston, I. (1991) ‘A reassessment of Kenya’s rural and urban informal sector’, World Development, 19(6), 651-70. Google Scholar

Lyons, M. (2013) ‘Pro-poor business law? On MKURABITA and the legal empowerment of Tanzania’s street vendors’, Hague Journal on the Rule of Law, 5(1), 74-95. Google Scholar

Marx, C. (2009) ‘Conceptualizing the potential of informal land markets to reduce urban poverty’, International Development Planning Review, 31(4), 336-53. Google Scholar

McGee, T. G. (1973) Hawkers in Hong Kong: a study of planning and policy in a Third World city, Hong Kong, Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong. Google Scholar

Meneses-Reyes, R. and Caballero-Juárez, J. A. (2014) ‘The right to work on the street: public space and constitutional rights’, Planning Theory, 13(4), 370-86. Google Scholar

Mitchell, D. (2003) The right to the city: social justice and the fight for public space, New York, Guilford Press. Google Scholar

Oriard, L. R. (2015) ‘Street vending and its ability to produce space: the case of the Tepito Market in Mexico City downtown area’ (PhD thesis), London, University College London. Google Scholar

Ostrom, E. (2009) ‘Design principles of robust property rights institutions: what have we learned?’, in Ingram and Hong (eds), 25-51. Google Scholar

Peña, S. (1999) ‘Informal markets: street vendors in Mexico City’, Habitat International, 23(3), 363-72. Google Scholar

Piliavsky, A. (ed.) (2014) Patronage as the politics of South Asia, New York, Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Recio, R. B. (2010) Street use and urban informal vending: towards a policy framework addressing socio-spatial issues of urban informal vending vis-à-vis the use of streets (The case of Caloocan City), (MA thesis), Quezon City, Philippines, University of the Philippines Diliman. Google Scholar

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Recio, Redento B.

Recio, Redento B.