Modern Believing

Sex, Gender and Human Identity: Science and Theology

Modern Believing (2021), 62, (1), 24–36.


Human identity is both shared with all other members of the species, Homo sapiens, and also, individually, something that is deeply personal and unique to each human being. Human diversity enriches our relationships with one another. For good or ill, we share collective identities that mark us out as both similar and different to others in various ways. Our relationships with one another help to define our individual identities, and are also shaped by them. Within this interplay of human identities, sex and gender play a significant role. Science has taught us much about human identity in all of these senses. Theologically, our identity is fundamentally revealed in relationship to God in Christ. A Christian theology of human identity which is engaged in dialogue with the scientific study of human identity has the potential to be affirming of a more inclusive approach to members of sexual and gender minority groups.

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Author details

Cook, Christopher C. H.